March 27-29, 2019 – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP).
4 keynote talks and 66 regular papers in 3 topic sessions.
Titles and abstracts of the papers ordered by topic session are presented below.

New trends in programming and runtime environments for control systems
Leszek Trybus
Politechnika Rzeszowska
Abstract: The IEC 61131-3 standard, extended for object programming in Edition 3.0 (2013), defines control system development and execution environments (runtime) used currently and at least for the next several years. The environments consist of language editors, compilers, simulators, and runtime software. Development of such packages requires considerable workload, therefore most of them are provided by leading manufacturers for their own controllers and systems. However, there are also open environments developed independently that can be integrated with various controllers, as for instance ISaGRAF previously or CoDeSys currently. By using such packages Small and Medium Scale (SMES) manufacturers can program their devices according to the IEC 61131-3 standard, without developing the tools themselves. The open environments can be divided into two groups. In the first, the IEC programs are first compiled into C/C++, from which an appropriate tool generates machine code for the target processor. However, the need for such additional tool restricts commercial applications. The second approach applies virtual machine running as runtime on the target processor. The machine interprets certain intermediate code to which the IEC programs are compiled. Such environment requires development of the intermediate language, compiler, architecture of the virtual machine and its code. In addition, full openness requires scalability, i.e. application of the compiler and virtual machine to 8/16/32 and 64-bit platforms. Exemplary solutions to such issues applied in the CPDev engineering environment are presented in the paper. Besides openness, other trends in control software are also discussed, such as fast FPGA implementations, multiplatform HMI, and model driven development (MDD).

Analysis of experimentally obtained data for automated evaluation
Vytautas Bučinskas
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania
Abstract: Analysis of real systems usually rely on the data from measurement using various sensors and transducers. There are plenty of methods and tools for data analysis, but recently analysis of data performed by blind-eyed machines and skills of data analysis required strict formalization. Control and diagnostics of systems, based on frequency as diagnostic parameter face serious problem. Experimental obtained vibration data spectrum contains wide area of active frequencies and extract actual resonant frequency in real conditions using blind logic. This presentation will reveal problematic and delivers some possible solution as well as successful cases with solution of such task.

High precision automated astronomical mount
1Krzysztof Kozlowski, 1Dariusz Pazderski, 1Bartlomiej Krysiak, 1Tomasz Jedwabny, 1Joanna Piasek, 2Stanislaw Kozlowski, 1Stefan Brock, 1Dariusz Janiszewski, 1Krzysztof Nowopolski
1Politechnika Poznańska, 2Centrum Astronomiczne im. Mikołaja Kopernika PAN,,,,,,,,
Abstract: In this paper, some specific aspects of a new automated astronomical mount of a 0.5 m class telescope is provided. This is the first astronomical mount built on the ground of Polish technical concept. This mount was designed and built by the interdisciplinary team consisting of researchers representing automation and robotics discipline (Poznan University of Technology) and astronomy (Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences). The project takes advantage of CAD software for mechanical design, analysis and optimization. Furthermore, the modern control theory is utilized for coping with complicated physical phenomena which are especially troublesome in the low range of angular velocities of the mount. The astronomical mount is able to work with the high accuracy of positioning, greater than one second of arc, and large range of accessible velocities. The mount is dedicated for observations of stars and satellites. Mechanical and electrical parts of the mount and its measuring system are discussed. Furthermore, an algorithm designed for motion control, based on the active disturbance rejection paradigm, is outlined. In order to illustrate the performance of the closed-loop system, experimental results of trajectory tracking in the joint and the task spaces are compared.

Automatic control and feedback loops in biology and medicine
Jarosław Śmieja
Instytut Automatyki, Politechnika Śląska
Abstract: Biological systems, from individual cells to cells populations, to tissue and organs to whole organisms, are equipped in multiple positive and negative feedback control mechanisms. Knowledge of these mechanisms is crucial if we want to modify intracellular biochemical control systems (in genetic engineering), affect them during therapies, control populations metabolism or behavior (e.g. in bioreactors), or design artificial organs or devices supporting physiological processes. This work focuses on three aspects of interdisciplinary research in automatic control, biology and medicine: (i) modeling of physiological processes on a whole body level, aimed at supporting artificial organs development; (ii) using optimal control theory for designing anticancer therapy protocols and (iii) using simulation and analysis techniques for identification of complex intracellular regulatory mechanisms, aimed at expanding knowledge in this field.

Digraphs structures with weights corresponding to one-dimensional fractional systems
Konrad Markowski
Politechnika Warszawska
Abstract: In this paper, after extensive study and experimentation, the first classification of digraphs structures $\mathcal{D} corresponding to one-dimensional (1D) fractional continuous-time and discrete-time systems has been presented. It was found that digraph structures created can be divided into three classes $\mathcal{K}_1$, $\mathcal{K}_2$, $\mathcal{K}_3$ with a different feasibility for different polynomials. Additional two cases of possible input-output digraph structure $\mathcal{IO}_{1}$, $\mathcal{IO}_{2}$ was investigated and discussed. It should be noted, that the proposed digraph classes give the opportunity to easily determine the realization of the dynamic system as a set of matrices $(\mathbf{A},\mathbf{B},\mathbf{C})$. The proposed digraphs classification was illustrated with some numerical examples.

Realization of the Descriptor Continuous-Time Fractional System Consist of Strictly Proper Part and Polynomial Part
Konrad Markowski
Politechnika Warszawska
Abstract: In this paper, method for computation of a realization of a given proper transfer function of descriptor fractional continuous-time one-dimensional linear systems has been presented. For the proposed method, an algorithm a based on digraphs theory was constructed. The proposed solution allows determine sets of realizations as a $(\mathbf{E},\mathbf{A},\mathbf{B},\mathbf{C})$ matrices pairs. Method was discussed and illustrated with numerical examples.

Minimum energy control and reachability of continuous-time linear systems with rectangular inputs
Krzysztof Rogowski
Politechnika Białostocka
Abstract: In the paper a reachability property of continuous-time linear systems with rectangular type inputs vector is addressed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of that type of input signals that steer the system from zero initial conditions to desired final state in assumed time are derived and proved. The computation method of the input signals vector set that are the solution to the problem is presented. Next, a minimum energy control problem is considered. Using an integral control performance index the minimum energy input vector is chosen from the set of consistent inputs. The considerations are illustrated by a numerical example of electrical circuit with pulse wave voltage sources, where the input signals that minimise assumed performance index are computed and applied to steer the electrical circuit to desired final state in given time.

Normal fractional positive linear systems and electrical circuits
Tadeusz Kaczorek
Politechnika Białostocka
Abstract: The notion of normal fractional positive electrical circuits is introduced and some their specific properties are investigated. New state matrices of fractional positive linear systems and electrical circuits are proposed and their properties are analyzed. The zeros and poles cancellation in the transfer functions of the fractional positive systems is discussed. It is shown that the fractional positive electrical circuits with diagonal state matrices are normal for all values of resistances, inductances and capacitances.

Transfer matrices with positive coefficients of positive descriptor continuous-time linear systems
Tadeusz Kaczorek, Lukasz Sajewski
Politechnika Białostocka,
Abstract: Descriptor positive continuous-time linear system with transfer matrices having only positive coefficients are analyzed. It is shown that if the positive descriptor system is asymptotically stable then its transfer matrix has only positive coefficients. The realization problem for the class of descriptor positive systems is formulated and solved. Considerations are illustrated by numerical examples.

Discrete, fractional order, cancellation controller. Part I: idea and simulations
Krzysztof Oprzędkiewicz, Łukasz Więckowski, Maciej Podsiadło
Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. St. Staszica w Krakowie,,
Abstract: In the paper the proposition of discrete, fractional order cancellation controller dedicated to control a high order inertial plant is presented. The controller uses the hybrid transfer function model of the plant. Results of simulations show that the proposed controller assures the better control performance than PID controller tuned with the use of known methods.

Discrete, fractional order, cancellation controller. Part II: PLC implementation
Krzysztof Oprzędkiewicz, Łukasz Więckowski, Maciej Podsiadło
Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. St. Staszica w Krakowie,,
Abstract: In the paper the PLC implementation of discrete, fractional order cancellation controller dedicated to control a high order inertial plant is given. The controller uses the hybrid transfer function model of the plant. It is implemented at PLC SIEMENS with respect to object-oriented approach recommended by IEC61131 standard. Results of tests agree with simulations. The proposed controller is easy to tune and assures the better control performance than typical PID.

Identification of fractional order transfer function model using biologically inspired algorithms
Klaudia Dziedzic
Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. St. Staszica w Krakowie
Abstract: This paper presents the identification of a non-integer order model for the heat transfer process using the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO), cockroach swarm optimization algorithm (CSO), gray wolf optimizer algorithm (GWO) and fminsearch function. In the beginning, fractional order systems have been discussed. Then an overview of individual optimization methods was prepared. Simulations have been carried out for all used algorithms.

Development of the structure of an automated control system using tensor techniques for a diffusion station
1Viktor Sidletskyi, 2Igor Korobiichuk, 1Anatolii Ladaniuk, 1Ihor Elperin, 3Katarzyna Rzeplińska-Rykała
1National University of Food Technologies, Ukraine, 2Politechnika Warszawska, 3Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,,
Abstract: In modern automation systems, when creating of the regulating action the predicted values obtained from mathematical models are used and so, as a consequence, the efficiency of the enterprise will depend on the developed mathematical model adequacy. If the mathematical model is formulated in a tensorial form, then the prerequisite is created for the model to describe the process in an adequate manner. In this paper, we give an example of the development of a tensor model for a sugar house juice extraction complex and its use on the example of a structural diagram of a operating system. This structural diagram of the operating system consists of six main components. At the first stage the radius vectors (input and regulated values) are formed. At the second and third stage tensors are calculated. That will mathematically describe the connection between the input and output parameters of the operating system. At the fourth step, an unbalance signal in local coordinates and the controller coefficients is calculated. At the fifth and sixth steps, values of control signals in local coordinates are calculated. This approach allows us to calculate a regulating action to improve all the performance indicators of the technological site.

Neural network control systems for objects of periodic action with non-linear time programs
1Victor Tregub, 2Igor Korobiichuk, 1Oleh Klymenko, 1Alena Byrchenko, 3Katarzyna Rzeplińska-Rykała
1National University of Food Technologies, Ukraine, 2Politechnika Warszawska, 3Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,,
Abstract: The research is devoted to the development and comparison of one-circuit and combined automatic control systems (ACS), as well as combined ACS with logic devices and ACS with a neural network controller for program control of periodic action apparatuses. The effectiveness of the listed systems was evaluated by the accuracy of the implementation of time programs with non-linear distributions in different variants of transition from one section to another.

The problem of the optimal strategy of minimax control by objects with distributed parameters
1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Oleksey Lobok, 2Boris Goncharenko, 2Natalya Savitskaya, 3Marina Sych, 4Larisa Vihrova
1Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 2National University of Food Technologies, Ukraine, 3National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 4Central Ukrainian National Technical University, Ukraine,,,,,
Abstract: Тhe problem of minimax control synthesis for objects that are described by a two-dimensional heat conduction equation of parabolic type is solved. It is assumed that the control object functions under uncertainty conditions, and the perturbations acting on the object belong to some given hyperelipsoid. The problem of constructing a regulator in the state of an object for cases of point and mobile limit control is considered in accordance with the integral-quadratic quality criterion. In the work, for the first time, a minimax approach was used to control the objects described by the two-dimensional parabolic type thermal conductivity equation; the theoretical positions of synthesis of minimax regulators for cases of lumped boundary (point) and mov-ing regulators are considered; algorithmic software is developed that allows to simulate the dynamics of the constructed minimax-regulators and to investigate the corresponding transients.

The Issue of Adaptation of Diagnostic System to Protect Industrial Control Systems Against Cyber Threads
Paweł Wnuk, Jan Maciej Kościelny, Michał Syfert, Piotr Ciepiela
Politechnika Warszawska,,,
Abstract: The paper discusses issues related to the adaptation of diagnostic systems to the protection of industrial control systems (ICS) against cyber threats. Typical methods of attacking industrial systems are presented, along with a brief description of exemplary attacks. The potential consequences of attacks on both the operation of supervised industrial installations and the behavior of operators were also discussed. The vulnerabilities of industrial control systems to attacks have been demonstrated, while the differences between them and typical IT systems were highlighted. Three main groups of ICS protection methods are discussed, their strengths and weaknesses were presented. An important part of the paper is the proposal to change the structure of the diagnostic system so that it would be able to better detect and distinguish between attacks and faults.

Low power wireless protocol for IoT appliances using CSMA/CA mechanism
Tymoteusz Lindner, Daniel Wyrwał, Arkadiusz Kubacki
Politechnika Poznańska,,
Abstract: Authors propose solution in communication for low power embedded appliances, for system consists of many low power transmitters and one receiver. Transmitter is supplied from battery and works in loop: run program, send data, go sleep. Communication is based on ISM band on frequency 868 Mhz. Estimated work-time of transmitter on one battery is 12 years, with average current in sleep about 2uA. Communication between transmitter and receiver is one-sided. The transmitter does not receive any acknowledgement if the receiver has received data packet, due to reduce energy consumption by transmitter. In case to avoid lost packets, authors applied CSMA/CA (Carrier-sense multiple access with collision avoidance) mechanism. CSMA/CA mechanism is designed to check if channel is free before sending data. Data are sent, only if channel is sensed to be free.

Nested NARIMA model of the atmospheric distillation column
Michał Falkowski, Paweł Domański
Politechnika Warszawska,
Abstract: Atmospheric distillation column plays a very important role in the crude oil processing. It is multivariate, strongly nonlinear process. Its operation and proper control impacts signicantly the overall renery performance. One may nd in literature several papers describing column modeling with full spectrum of approaches staring from the first principle models up to regression black-boxes. Presented model composes of subsequent sections associated with technology. Each section is modeled as the nested NARIMA model. This methodology has been previously tested in several other chemical applications. It is extended by decomposition and coordination of subsequent sub-models in the considered case. Such a structure enables to obtain process nonlinear model with clear technological meaning of all considered elements. Further, it may be directly used in the process of control philosophy design. The procedure is illustrated with real data originating from the industrial installation.

New methods of power nodes automatic operation in scope of voltage regulation, reactive power and active power flow control
Piotr Kolendo
Instytut Energetyki Oddział Gdańsk
Abstract: Group control systems (ARNE/ARST) are used for the automatic regulation of voltage, reactive power and active power flow control in polish National Power System (NPS). Those systems are used in polish NPS since ’90, however due to constantly expanding electrical grid and new requirements for automation systems, a new solutions and control methods should be elaborated. Conditions for automatic control of power nodes are strongly dependent on requirements of Transmission System Operators (TSO) in each country, therefore solutions presented in paper will be appropriate for polish NPS . Paper describes solution of complex power node, on which automation should be prepared individually. On the basis of its case a new methods of group control were introduced i.e. control algorithms for phase shift transformers, coordination between step-up transformers and generators and control of industrial factories active/reactive power flow in respect to requested power angle. Control methods presented in this paper were implemented on industrial objects. Verification of its correctness is presented in the form of measurements from those industrial objects.

A Diagnostic system for remaining useful life of ball bearings
Bogdan Lipiec, Marcin Witczak
Uniwersytet Zielonogórski,
Abstract: This document describes estimation and approximation process of bearings Remaining Useful Life from 2012 Data Challenge. Data were received with the help of PRONOSTIA Platform, constructed for the needs of IEEE Data Challenge. This paper shows different methods of data processing to approximate Remaining Useful Life, which is very important in industries and it is the main part of maintenance. Tests were made on learning set provided by Data Challenge. Raw Data were extracted, filtered and analyzed using algorithms implemented in Matlab. During tests there were used kurtosis, Root Mean Square algorithms and moving average, which helped to process data to be useful for next tests. Remaining Useful Life was approximated using exponential fitting and different length of original data. Process of analysis boils down to determine at what point it is possible to correctly determinate the bearing remaining useful life.

Universal Data Acquisition Module PIAP-UDAM for INDUSTRY 4.0 application in agriculture
Roman Szewczyk, Oleg Petruk, Marcin Kamiński, Rafał Kłoda, Jan Piwiński, Wojciech Winiarski, Anna Stańczyk, Jakub Szałatkiewicz
Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,,,,,
Abstract: Paper presents the Internet of Things based concept of the universal system of agricultural production management and control accordingly to INDUSTRY 4.0 concept. Proposed system will be implemented in test sites in Poland and Israel and will cover four layers: decision support, data processing, data acquisition and transmission and sensors. The key for successful operation in the rural area is robust and efficient data acquisition layer. Solution for this layer – the Universal Data Acquisition Module PIAP-UDAM is presented in the paper together with example of application focused on the system for advanced fertilizer tanks monitoring.

Technological monitoring in the management of the distillation-rectification plant
1Vasii Kyshenko, 2Igor Korobiichuk, 3Katarzyna Rzeplińska-Rykała
1National University of Food Technologies, Ukraine, 2Politechnika Warszawska, 3Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,
Abstract: The analysis of time series of the process variables was conducted by methods of nonlinear dynamics, which allowed to determine the randomness values that are based on the depth of an object prediction. The filtering of the time series was obtained experimentally, using wavelet analysis. Defined the fractal properties of chaotic information flow, correlation dimension and the Hurst parameter were defined. The intensity of the impact of a technological parameter value on the process using Kohonen maps was identified.

The test stand research on HONDA NHX 110 powered with alternative fuels: a case study
Adrian Chmielewski, Krzysztof Bogdziński, Robert Gumiński, Artur Małecki, Tomasz Mydłowski, Jacek Dybała
Politechnika Warszawska,,,,,
Abstract: The work presents research on HONDA NHX 110 engine. The Internal Combustion engine (ICE engine) was fueled with gasoline RON95 and alternative fuels, including: methanol, ethanol and butanol. The experimental research was conducted for various ignition advance angle settings, at the authors’ own dynamometer engine test stand. Tests were conducted for several hundred work cycles at maximum engine load with fully open throttle (the ICE engine works as distributed generation device in electricity generation configuration). In this work the effects of ignition advance angle change on indicated work, mechanical power, electrical power and torque figures produced by the engine has been shown. Moreover, the influence of ignition advance angle on the values of indicated and open pressure graphs for ICE engine have been analyzed and shown. Furthermore the influence of emission of nitrogen oxides – NOx and hydrocarbons – HC at different angles of the ignition advance have been presented.

Battery Voltage Estimation Using NARX Recurrent Neural Network Model
Adrian Chmielewski, Jakub Możaryn, Piotr Piórkowski, Krzysztof Bogdziński
Politechnika Warszawska,,,
Abstract: This work presents a prediction of battery terminal voltage in subsequent charging/discharging cycles. To estimate chosen signals the NARX (AutoRegressive with eXogenous input) model based on Recurrent Neural Network has been employed. A training and testing data were gathered at the laboratory test stand with the Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) battery in different working conditions. Test stand research was conducted for 40 charging/discharging cycles. Furthermore, the paper presents the results of the identification of double RC model parameters for a specified state of charge level. As a result, the analysis of the proposed methodology has been discussed.

Study on wave simulator and hydraulic active heave compensation structure
Arkadiusz Jakubowski, Arkadiusz Kubacki
Politechnika Poznańska,
Abstract: In the paper development of design wave simulator and hydraulic active heave compensation structure is presented. The system is consists of motion platform with two degrees of freedom and hydraulic motor which is used for compensation sea waves. The motion platform is used to simulate the wave effects, while the hydraulic motor is controlled by controller. Authors used an AHRS sensor to measure actual position of the steel load which is mounted at the end of the steel cable. On the AHRS sensor accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer are implemented. In addition, the Authors used two laser displacement sensors to measure the steel load position in two axes. Performed test included step response of hydraulic motor for different type of signals coming from motion platform and measured position of the steel load by laser displacement sensors and AHRS sensor.

Low Phase Shift and Least Squares Optimal FIR Filter
Mateusz Saków
Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny w Szczecinie
Abstract: The problem of a significant phase shift in a control loop is posing a lot of challenges to the control design. One of them is definitely the loss of performance with the increased phase shift when using a filter at the system’s output. This paper contains a description of a new FIR weights determination method focused on low-pass filter design. The primary goal of this method is to minimize the phase shift caused by the filter. The filter theoretically fits a defined polynomial to an asymmetric data set. In this case, the nearest neighbour samples are only taken from the past side of the filtered vector of signal samples. This feature allows reducing the value of the phase shift, especially for a low-frequency spectrum. Therefore, the filter can be used directly in the closed-loop control and will minimize the loss of system performance.

Low Phase Shift Differential FIR Filter Design
Mateusz Saków
Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny w Szczecinie
Abstract: A low-phase shift and real-time differential estimation is a common problem in the control design. When linear phase shift filters are used at the system’s output, a strong performance loss appears with the increased phase shift. This paper presents a new FIR weights determination method focused on low-pass and differential filter design. The primary goal of this method is to minimize the phase shift caused by the differential FIR filter inside the control unit. In this case, the filter fits a defined polynomial to an asymmetric data set, then calculates a specified weighted sum. This feature allows reducing the value of the phase shift, even for differential estimation, and especially for the low-frequency spectrum. Moreover, the proposed solution results in LS optimal local differentiation based on the filter design.

UAVs Fleet Mission Planning Subject to Weather Forecast and Energy Consumption Constraints
1Amila Thibbotuwawa, 1Peter Nielsen, 2Grzegorz Bocewicz, 2Zbigniew Banszak
1Aalborg University, Denmark, 2Politechnika Koszalińska,,,
Abstract: The problems of mission planning for UAVs fleets are subject of intensive research. Their roots go back to the well-known extensions of VRP addressing the routing and scheduling of UAVs to deliver goods from a depot to customer locations. Rising expectations following the new outdoor applications besides seam-less flow routing constraints forces to consider other aspects such as the weather forecast and energy consumption. In that context, this research concerns a declarative framework enabling to state a model aimed at the analysis of the relationships between the structure of a given UAVs driven supply network and its behavior resulting in a sequence of submissions following a required delivery. Because of the Diophantine character of the considered model the main question concerns its solvability. The provided illustrative example shows an approach leading to sufficient conditions guaranteeing solutions existence and as a consequence providing requirements for a solvable class of UAV driven mission planning problems.

Infrastructure of RFID-based Smart City Traffic Control System
Bartosz Pawłowicz, Mateusz Salach, Bartosz Trybus
Politechnika Rzeszowska,,
Abstract: Taking as a basis the concept of urban development referred to as smart city 2.0, the article presents the possibilities offered by modern urban infrastructure in the field of intelligent traffic control. In particular, this applies to algorithms of optimal traffic distribution and rapid response to emergency situations. Various scenarios for improving this control using RFID (Radio-frequency identification) technology are discussed. Thanks to RFID it is possible to control access to zones with traffic restrictions, including city centers, areas available for specific types of vehicles or for vehicles meeting certain environmental standards. An important novelty is the solution involving the installation of RFID readers in vehicles, and not only in road infrastructure. A hybrid solution that could be used during the transitional period is also presented.

Follow-up Sequencing Algorithm for Car Sequencing Problem 4.0
Sara Bysko, Jolanta Krystek
Politechnika Śląska w Gliwicach,
Abstract: The problem of effective car sequencing in the paint shop results from the specifics of production process itself and from the structure of production line. Sequencing of cars intended to painting process is justified by economic reasons. The paper describe the new concept of this problem – Car Sequencing Problem 4.0, which takes into account the real structure of paint shop and buffers used there. The main goal of the research is to minimize the number of costly changeovers of painting guns, which results only from painting color changes. Each color change is related to the need to clean paint system, loss of paint and gun changeover, what increases the production cost. The aim should be synchronization of changeovers, resulting from color changes, with periodic cleanings of painting guns, forced by technological requirements. Periodic cleanings are made to ensure good quality of painting process. In the paper the Follow-up Sequencing Algorithm is proposed to solve the considered sequencing problem. The purpose of the conducted research was to verify the influence of periodic cleaning interval on the effectiveness of the presented sequencing algorithm.

A data-driven approach to constraint optimization
Jarosław Wikarek, Paweł Sitek
Politechnika Świętokrzyska,
Abstract: Many problems occurring in production, transport, supply chains and everyday life problems can be formulated in the form of constraint optimization problems (COPs). Most often these are issues related to planning and scheduling, distribution of resources, fleet selection, route and network optimization, configuration of machines and manufacturing systems, timetabling, etc. In the vast majority of cases, these are discrete problems of a combinatorial nature. Significant difficulties in modelling and solving COPs are usually the magnitude of real problems, which translates into a large number of variables and constraints as well as high computational complexity (usually NP-hard problems). The article proposes a data-driven approach, which allows a significant reduction in the magnitude of modelled problems and, consequently, the possibility of solving many real problems in an acceptable time.

Hierarchical Petri Net Representation of Robot Systems
Maksym Figat, Cezary Zielinski
Politechnika Warszawska,
Abstract: The paper presents a holistic robot system specification methodology taking into account both the system structure and its activities. It is based on the concept of an embodied agent. Each agent is decomposed into cooperating subsystems. Previously subsystem activities were defined by a hierarchical finite state machine (HFSM). In that approach communication between subsystems was not specified explicitly. This paper utilises a Hierarchical Petri Net (HPN) with conditions as an alternative modelling tool. HPN can be obtained by transformation of the HFSM into HPN. The resulting HPN consists of consecutive layers: subsystem layer, behaviour layer and communication layer. The proposed methodology not only organizes in a systematic and holistic manner the development of the robot system, but also introduces a comprehensive description of concurrently acting subsystems. The HPN description can be utilised to automatically generate the robot controller code.

Measuring performance in robotic teleoperation tasks with virtual reality headgear
Mateusz Maciaś, Adam Dąbrowski, Jan Fraś, Michał Karczewski, Sławomir Puchalski, Sebastian Tabaka, Piotr Jaroszek
Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,, ,, ,
Abstract: With the current rise of a new wave of Virtual Reality technologies, wider range of their applications are to be expected. Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) are starting to find use in some of human-machine interfaces for robots. We seek to measure and evaluate the impact that these devices can have on performance in standard robotic teleoperation tasks such as driving, observation and manipulation. In a study conducted with two real robots and standardized testing environment, including a total of 17 operators and 5 different tasks, an interface consisting of HMD and stereo vision module is compared to a more traditional one.

Real-time 3D mapping with visual-inertial odometry pose coupled with localization in an occupancy map
1Jacek Szklarski, 2Cezary Ziemiecki, 2Jacek Szałtys, 2Marian Ostrowski
1Instytut Podstawowych Problemów Techniki PAN, 2Invenco Sp. z o.o.,,,
Abstract: Recent research has shown that visual and inertial measurements can serve as a powerful, robust and accurate odometry source when processed by state-of-the-art algorithms. One of the main benefits of such approach is short latency, even for on-board computers working on Miniature Autonomous Vehicles (MAV). However, depending on environmental conditions or sensor motion patterns, this type of odometry may be prone to drift or even divergence. In the presented work, it is shown that employing occupancy maps can limit such undesirable behaviour while still providing pose estimate at high frequencies. This is of particular importance for highly dynamical MAV control with limited on-board numerical capabilities.

Unified CAMELOT interoperability adapters for existing unmanned Command & Control systems
1Jan Piwiński, 1Rafał Kłoda, 1Mateusz Maciaś, 2Francisco Pérez
1Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 2Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain,,,
Abstract: In this paper we present the CAMELOT project Command Control (C2) framework, which aim is to provide seamless interoperability with each of the UxV platform domains, by a single standard for message formats and data protocols, without necessitating a re-structuring of existing interface protocols and underlying architectures. This will lead to evolution to one unified standard that can be applied for development of all unmanned systems types in the future. The CAMELOT framework will include different service modules for controlling the C2 Infrastructure and Operation, for data management and running analytics, for supporting communications and network connectivity between blocks, and for providing interfaces to external systems. Special care will be taken to maximise interfaces with external information frameworks and to ensure future implementation and adoption by end users.

Optimal Tuning of Altitude Controller Parameters of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Using Iterative Learning Approach
Wojciech Giernacki
Politechnika Poznańska
Abstract: Dynamics and flight stabilization of a multirotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be shaped by appropriate mechanisms of tuning parameters of its position and orientation controllers. In the article, the attention is focused on a fixed-parameters altitude controller. Its gains can be tuned optimally and automatically according to the expected criterion, and the search process takes place during the UAV short-time flight. For this purpose, it is proposed to use the auto-tuning method based on the bootstrapping technique and zero-order optimization with the use of Fibonacci-search algorithm. In the paper, theoretical basis of the proposed method and discussion of the results from conducted simulation experiments for the exemplary quadrotor model, are presented in the paper.

The use of force feedback to control the robot during drilling
1Marcin Chciuk, 2Andrzej Milecki
1Uniwersytet Zielonogórski, 2Politechnika Poznańska,
Abstract: The article proposes the use of a joystick with the so-called force feedback, called in the English-language terminology as “haptic”, to control a small robot. First, the haptic-type joysticks are briefly described and then their applications in robotics and in teleoperation application are presented. A laboratory stand designed to control a small robot performing drilling operations was described. Signal changes during the drilling process performed by the robot in the conditions of teleoperation controlled by a joystick with magnetorheological brakes were recorded. These signals were compared when the force feedback system was used and when it was not used.

Estimation of free space on car park using computer vision algorithms
1Mateusz Bukowski, 1Marcin Luckner, 2Robert Kunicki
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2Urząd Warszawy,,
Abstract: A system for monitoring of vacant parking spots can save drivers a lot of time and costs. Other citizens can benefit from a reduction of pollutions too. In our work, we proposed the computer vision system that estimates free space in a car park. The system uses three separate estimation methods based on various approaches to the estimation issue. The free car park area is recognised on a video frame by as the broadest cohesive area, the largest group of pixels with similar colours, and background for parked cars. The raw results of the estimations are aggregated by a Multi-Layer Perceptron to obtain the final estimate. The test on real data from the City of Warsaw showed that the system reaches 95 per cent accuracy. Moreover, the results were compared with the registers from the parking machines to estimate a gap between covered payment and the accurate number of parked cars.

City bus monitoring supported by computer vision and machine learning algorithms
1Artur Wilkowski, 2Ihor Mykhalevych, 2Marcin Luckner
1Politechnika Warszawska, Wydział Geodezji i Kartografii, 2Politechnika Warszawska, Wydział Matematyki i Nauk Informacyjnych,,
Abstract: In this paper there are proposed methods and algorithms supporting city traffic controllers in effective perception and analysis of the visual information from the public transport monitoring system implemented in the City of Warsaw. To achieve this goal, public transport vehicles must be recognised and tracked in camera view. In this work, we describe a structure and give preliminary results for the detection and tracking system proposed. The algorithms discussed in this paper uses background subtraction to extract moving vehicles from the scene and the classification system to reject objects that are not city buses. Furthermore, a custom tracking module is utilized to enable labeling of city buses instances. During the test performed in the City of Warsaw the system was able to successfully detect 89% bus instances giving less than 15% erroneous detections.

A method of optimal flight trajectory synthesis for an anti-collision manoeuvre performed within a neighbourhood with moving obstacles
Jerzy Graffstein
Instytut Lotnictwa
Abstract: For solving the airplane to obstacle collision avoidance problem two methods are necessary: one, for detecting a collision threat, and the other one, for synthesizing a safe manoeuvre avoiding threating obstacles. In the article a method for detecting a threat of collision to obstacle was presented for the case of many obstacles moving within the neighbourhood of the airplane. Methods for optimal anti collision trajectory synthesis and for proving the workability of such a result were proposed too. A solution of an optimisation problem, obtained by the Swarm of Particles Optimization (PSO) was used for trajectory synthesis. A form of quality index was proposed for this task and the analyses of its behaviour for several values of weighting factors were presented. Results of simulations of flight along an optimal, anti-collision manoeuvre trajectory proved that such a manoeuvre is workable.

Proposition of the methodology of the robotised part replication implemented in Industry 4.0 paradigm
1Michał Nazarczuk, 2Maciej Cader, 3Michał Kowalik, 1Mikołaj Jankowski
1Imperial College London, UK, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 3Politechnika Warszawska,,,
Abstract: In this article, we present a proposition of the methodology of the robotised part replication, designed to be implemented according to Industry 4.0 paradigm. The replication process relies on a digital model which establishes the base for robotised 3D scanning, the preparation of the CAD model and robotised milling. The main goal of the article was to estimate errors that potentially may occur in predefined key stages of the proposed approach. We present the results of analysing the errors arising from numerical controlled machining of the representative part – from collecting the digital point cloud model to a computer simulation of the machining process based on the CAD model. The article also contains propositions for future work in robotised part replication.

Capabilities of the additive manufacturing in rapid prototyping of the grippers’ precision jaws
Piotr Falkowski, Bogumiła Wittels, Zbigniew Pilat, Michał Smater
Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,
Abstract: Nowadays, additive manufacturing is becoming increasing popular, cheap and easily accessible. It got particularly useful in industry. While the engineering designs need to be verified as quickly as it is possible, it is hardly unmanageable due to their high costs and a long time of production. 3-D printing enables a totally different approach towards these problems. This technique lets the mechanic apply the changes in a design on spot and test it under the real conditions. Even though it gives the crucial advantage of the price and the save of time, it brings some major problems as well. The 3-D printers offer the accuracy and precision limited to much lower standards than traditional machining. Moreover, the filaments used for the additive manufacturing have usually much worse material parameters than the most common metals. This study assesses the capabilities of the additive manufacturing in the production of the small elements for the tests. It is based on the real-life case of rapid prototyping of the grippers’ precision jaws used for assembling the cylindrical objects in the casings. The paper contains an overview of grippers, 3-D printers and filaments, finite element strength tests and the summary of the method’s potential.

Motion Planning and Control of Social Mobile Robot – Part 1. Robot Hardware Architecture and Description of Navigation System
1Marcin Słomiany, 2Przemysław Dąbek, 2Maciej Trojnacki
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,
Abstract: This two-part paper is concerned with the problem of motion planning and control of PIAP IRYS social robot mobile platform, which is the adapted NOMAD 200 robot. In the first part of the work the developed hardware and software architectures of the research object, as well as its kinematic structure are described. The robot consists of two independent components: (1) a head with a trunk and (2) a mobile platform. As the mobile platform the modernized version of NOMAD 200 robot with synchronously driven and steered wheels was used. The mobile platform was equipped among others with modern low-level miControl motor controllers and a high-level controller working under GNU/Linux operating system with Robot Operating System framework. Kinematics of the three-wheeled robot is discussed and software architecture including ROS-based navigation system is described.

Motion Planning and Control of Social Mobile Robot – Part 2. Experimental Research
1Marcin Słomiany, 2Przemysław Dąbek, 2Maciej Trojnacki
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,
Abstract: The paper is the second part of the work concerned with the motion planning and control of PIAP IRYS social robot mobile platform, which is the adapted NOMAD 200 robot with synchronously driven and steered wheels. In the first part of the work developed hardware and software architectures of the research object, as well as its kinematic structure were described. In the part two of the paper, state of the art in mobile robot navigation systems is described and the problem of motion planning and control of a mobile platform is considered. The experiments were conducted with a real robot in a real environment. For experimental research the most representative and relevant local motion planning algorithm was chosen. During each experimental traverse of the robot a map of indoor environment was created using Hector SLAM algorithm. For robot localization the same SLAM algorithm was used. The experiments were carried out for the selected local motion planning algorithm. During some experiments additional static and dynamic obstacles were introduced, that were not present before. Results of selected experiments for various environments and additional obstacles were presented and discussed.

Using multiple RFID readers in mobile robots for surface exploration
Marcin Hubacz, Bartosz Pawłowicz, Bartosz Trybus
Politechnika Rzeszowska,,
Abstract: The article presents selected aspects related to the implementation of RFID readers in a mobile robot that tests a given surface. The advantages of such a solution are given, which significantly improves the accuracy of the location. Issues related to energy flow in RFID systems are discussed, including inductive and propagation coupling. Details on software handling of multiple RFID readers are given. Test results of two modes of operation are presented, i.e. using polling and interrupts. The algorithm for reader prioritization is also shown

Laser-based Localization and Terrain Mapping for Driver Assistance in a City Bus
Michał R. Nowicki, Tomasz Nowak, Piotr Skrzypczynski
Politechnika Poznańska,,
Abstract: High costs of labor and personnel training in public transport lead to increased interest in the advanced driver assistance systems for city buses. As buses have to execute precise maneuvers when parking in a limited and cluttered environment, they need accurate localization and reliable terrain perception. We present preliminary results of a project aimed at equipping an electric city bus with localization and terrain mapping capabilities. The approach is based on 3-D laser scanners mounted on the bus. Our system provides the bus pose estimate and elevation map to the motion planning algorithm that in turn provides the human driver with steering suggestions through a human-machine interface.

Construction and preliminary testing of the force feedback device for use in industrial robot control based on the BCI hybrid interface
Arkadiusz Kubacki, Tymoteusz Lindner, Arkadiusz Jakubowski
Politechnika Poznańska,,
Abstract: The article describes design process of building force feedback device for use in hybrid brain-computer interface based on Electrooculography (EOG) and center eye tracking. In first paragraph authors presented information about built hybrid Brain-Computer Interface (BCI). The interface was built with used of the bioactive sensors mounted on the head. Research on both the model and the industrial robot has been described. In second paragraph presented construction and test of force feedback device. The authors checked the proportionality of the input force to the output one. They also conducted research on the positioning of the robot’s tip with both on and off force feedback.

Using the Raspberry PI2 module and the brain-computer technology for controlling a mobile vehicle
Szczepan Paszkiel
Politechnika Opolska
Abstract: This paper describes the execution process of a four-wheeled robot controlled by a user via an Emotiv EPOC+ NeuroHeadset device. The following, inter alia, was described for this purpose – the issue of selecting a controller with additional modules necessary to create a robot; execution of a four-wheeler prototype; connecting the devices: Raspberry PI2 and Emotiv EPOC+ NeuroHeadset in a network, which allows the transfer of data grouped in packs. An original control algorithm, presented in this paper was developed and calibration with an Emotiv EPOC+ NeuroHeadset device was conducted for the purposes of the research.

Optimal control of a wheeled robot
Zenon Hendzel, Paweł Penar
Politechnika Rzeszowska,
Abstract: The article presents the experimental verification of the zero-sum differential game in the mobile robot tracking control task in changing environmental conditions. The solution allows to generate an adaptive optimal control and solve the H-infinity control problem. The adopted solution is based on the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman principle of optimality and is a generalization of the minmax optimization problem. The verification of adaptive optimal control is a new approach to this problem in the context of currently optimal solutions in mobile robotics in real time. The article presents the experimental results, which were used to verify the solutions adopted and confirmed the high accuracy of mobile robot tracking control.

Lane Finding for Autonomous Driving
Lukasz Sztyber
Instytut Badań Systemowych PAN
Abstract: The problem of lane finding is one of the main components of scene understanding for autonomous driving. This paper presents the application of computer vision to lane finding on motorways. This technique is used to transform an image captured by a camera into binary form and apply a moving histogram window to derive the most likely position of the lane markers. It is proved to be fast enough to operate in real-time conditions.

A Self-Driving Car in the Classroom: Design of an Embedded, Behavior-Based Control System for a Car-like Robot
Mateusz Mydlarz, Piotr Skrzypczynski
Politechnika Poznańska,
Abstract: In this paper we study the design of a small mobile robot that resembles a self-driving car. The robot has been designed on the basis of a cheap, radio controlled toy car, but equipped with an embedded controller, a vision system and range sensors. To keep the robot affordable, low-cost, off-the-shelf components are used in the design. The developed robot is used to demonstrate the behavioral paradigm of the control system design, which is commonly used in mobile robots. The small autonomous car becomes an attractive educational tool, that may give the students an insight in both the hardware and software aspects of mobile robotics

A description of the motion of a mobile robot with mecanum wheels – kinematics
Zenon Hendzel
Politechnika Rzeszowska
Abstract: This paper formulates kinematic equations of motion of a 4-wheel mobile robot equipped with mecanum-type wheels. It has been assumed that the motion of the robot occurs within the x-y plane. A classical approach applied in mechanics has been used for the formulation of the robot’s equations of motion. Computer simulations have been conducted with the obtained kinematics equations of motion, as-suming motion through straight line tracks and tracks in the shape of a loop, and also assuming a constant robot frame orientation angle.

A description of the motion of a mobile robot with mecanum wheels – dynamics
Zenon Hendzel
Politechnika Rzeszowska
Abstract: This paper formulates dynamic equations of motion of a 4-wheel mobile robot equipped with mecanum-type wheels. This new approach towards the formulation of equations has been applied by the usage of Maggi’s mathematical formalism. When describing the dynamics of the mobile robot, dynamic equations of motion have been designed by the application of Lagrange’s equations with multipliers. Lagrange’s multipliers occurring in dynamic equations of motion cause difficulties in the application of such a form to the real-time steering synthesis of the analyzed object. Maggi’s mathematical formalism has been applied to eliminate the need for multipliers. Numerical simulations of the inverse dynamics task have been conducted for the obtained dynamic motion parameters stemming from the inverse kinematics task

Evaluation methods for the ergatic system reliability operator
1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Andriy Tokar, 2Yuriy Danik, 2Vadim Katuha
1Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 2Zhytomyr Military Institute n.a. S.P. Korolyov, Ukraine,,,
Abstract: In modern society, multipurpose hardware, which together with a human operator represents ergatic system, is commonly used to perform various tasks. Effectiveness of such systems depends on reliability of both components. Modern science helps to find ways to improve reliability of hardware at design and production stages, which leads to their effective functioning. However, despite high hardware performance, quality selection, staff training and coaching, the accidents, disasters, disruptions and drop in ergatic task performance continue to take place. 40% to 80% accidents and emergencies in various fields of activity happen due to human error as a result of lack of preparation, adverse psychological factors and fatigue. Therefore, search for ways of assessing reliability of ergatic system operators is an urgent scientific challenge aimed at determining a critical moment of its deterioration. The article suggests methods for assessing reliability of ergatic system operator based on the theory of fuzzy logic, which allows for assessment in terms of individual character and variability of psychological, physiological and professional capabilities and characteristics of operator and his/her sensitivity to the effects of external and internal factors.

Information support the operative control procedures of energy efficiency of operation modes of municipal water supply system facilities
1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Lіudmyla Davydenko, 3Volodymyr Davydenko, 3Nina Davydenko
1Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 2Lutsk National Technical University, Ukraine, 3National University of Water Management and Environmental Engineering, Rivne, Ukraine,,,
Abstract: The principles of information support organization of control procedures, which take into consideration the features of the research object functioning for obtaining the correct control results, have been considered in the article. The energy efficiency monitoring system is considered as a tool for forming a database. Complex analysis of daily water consumption graphs has been provided for taking into consideration of water consumption unevenness and influence of external factors during the water supply planning. Its results are the basis of planning and control procedures. An architecture of the information support system of the control, which reflects the connection between its procedures, has been proposed. The formalization of energy efficiency control has been accomplished based on object-oriented technology. Classes that take into consideration the characteristic of the facility, water consumption, environment, and energy consumption, methods of planning and control of energy consumption have been formed. Examples of calculated procedures realization have been demonstrated. Using the proposed principles gives an opportunity to take into consideration the actual operation conditions of the research object and provide information for correct control.

Accelerating image fusion algorithms using CUDA on embedded industrial platforms dedicated to UAV and UGV
Artur Kaczmarczyk, Weronika Zatorska
Wojskowe Zakłady Elektroniczne S.A.,
Abstract: The objective of image fusion is to combine information from multiple images of the same scene, where the image result of fusion is more suitable for human and machine perception. This process is usually time consuming on most standard computing platforms, which can be used in autonomous and semi-autonomous platforms, such as an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). This creates a conflict between satisfying the hardware requirements and the platform’s current demand. In this article, we propose a solution to this problem, being an image fusion algorithm utilizing CUDA technology, dedicated for an embedded platform (~5 Watts), allowing for image processing in 25 frames per second, which should be satisfactory for the needs of the mentioned platforms. During the development, we researched multimodal image fusion algorithms and implemented the chosen methods. The chosen testing environment and chosen measures of the quality of the fusion is presented as well.

Magnetic Induction Measurements as an Example of Evaluating Uncertainty of a Vector Output Quantity
Adam Idzkowski
Politechnika Białostocka
Abstract: This paper presents the way of estimating results in the case of indirect multivariate measurements performed using electronic measuring instrument. The simultaneous measurements of several quantities, which are usually correlated, are performed by using electronic devices in automatic control applications. The aim of paper is to discuss the propagation of measurement uncertainty in measuring channels. The presented model equation contains a vector measurand and the covariance matrix. The covariance of two random variables is a measure of their mutual dependence. A novel application is presented. The uncertainties of output quantities as well as matrix of correlation coefficients are computed. A comparison of two time series is another problem which is discussed in this paper. A simple technique of finding correlation between two signals produced by the automatic system with two magnetic field sensors, which is used for the purpose of vehicle’s length estimation, is presented.

The effect of ground changes and the setting of external magnetic field on electroplating FeNi layers
Anna Bialostocka, Adam Idzkowski
Politechnika Białostocka,
Abstract: The electrodeposition of iron-nickel alloys has been studied with different conditions of substrate and magnetic field arrangement. All experimental conditions influence the resultant film quality, the alloy composition and morphology. Studies show differences in before mentioned features of ferromagnetic metals (Fe, Ni) electrodeposited on non-ferromagnetic substrates – paramagnetic (Cu) and diamagnetic (Ag). The presence and absence of the external magnetic field influences FeNi alloys too. The obtained layers were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF).

The use of brain-computer interface to control unmanned aerial vehicle
Szczepan Paszkiel, Mariusz Sikora
Politechnika Opolska,
Abstract: The article discusses the capabilities of Emotiv EPOC+ NeuroHeadset in the context of quadcopter control. It also presents project and the practical implementation of the inertial measurement unit based on the extended Kalman filter and a low-pass filter. Data produced by the inertial measurement unit are used by the quadcopter stability control system that consist of 3 PID controllers. Effectiveness of the stability control system was examined. Based on that examination, the areas for further development was pointed. Additional control systems can be implemented in order to make the control of quadcopter via BCI less demanding for the pilot.

Neon oscillator megohmmeter
1Al Julanda Hashim Salim Al Nabhani, 2Klaudia Biś, 3Michał Nowicki, 4Marcin Safinowski
1Politechnika Warszawska, Instytut Mikromechaniki i Fotoniki, 2Politechnika Warszawska, Instytut Automatyki i Robotyki, 3Politechnika Warszawska, Instytut Metrologii i Inżynierii Biomedycznej, 4Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,
Abstract: This article is about the application of the neon lamp in oscillator circuit to the measurement of high electrical resistance. It has been found that the relationship between the period of the oscillator and the resistance in the circuit is linear to a high degree of accuracy. This linear relation are applied to the measurement of high resistance, with use of simple phototransistor voltage divider and popular Arduino platform. Thus extremely basic and inexpensive, but relatively obscure electronic circuit can be utilized for high resolution measurements of high resistance, while microcontroller provides necessary calculations, error corrections and PC connection for optional data storage and visualization.

Increasing imaging speed and accuracy in contact mode AFM
Andrius Dzedzickis, Vytautas Bučinskas, Tadas Lenkutis, Inga Morkvėnaitė-Vilkončienė, Viktor Kovalevskyi
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania,,,,
Abstract: Atomic force microscope (AFM) is a promising tool in micro and nano size objects researches. Contact mode AFM has advantages comparing to non-contact modes: the scanning speed is higher, and atomic resolution can be achieved. The main limiting factor in contact mode AFM is scanning speed. At high scanning speed the ‘loss of contact’ phenomenon occurs, and probe in this case cannot follow the surface. In order to ensure a constant interaction force (stable contact) between the probe and scanned surface, the additional force created by air flow was applied. Proposed method is based on the idea to apply additional controllable nonlinear force on the upper surface of the AFM cantilever, which will help to keep the probe in contact with sample surface. It was found that dynamic characteristics of various AFM sensor cantilevers can be controlled using proposed method. It has been determined that the use of aerodynamic force has the greatest influence on the scanning results deviation from the real sample in the horizontal direction then scanner z axis goes down. With a compressed air pressure of 7 kPa and a scanning speed 847.6 μm/s, this deviation decreases by 20% comparing to the case when compressed air flow is not used.

Method for living cell mechanical properties establishment from force-indentation curves
1Inga Morkvenaite-Vilkonciene, 1Raimundas Vilkoncius, 1Juste Rozene, 2Antanas Zinovicius, 3Oleksii Balitskyi, 2Almira Ramanaviciene, 2Arunas Ramanavicius, 1Andrius Dzedzickis, 1Vytautas Bucinskas
1Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania, 2Vilnius University, Lithuania, 3Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Lithuania,,,,,,,,
Abstract: Living cells mechanical properties establishment from Atomic force microscopy (AFM) force-separation curves is a challenge, because the calculated Young’s modulus depends on the applied mathematical model. The more reliable results can be obtained using finite element models. In this work, Yeasts cells with different mechanical properties were measured by AFM. To change cells mechanical properties, Yeasts were immersed in 9,10-phenantrenequinone, which changed cells’ membranes elasticity. 3 D finite element model of the whole cell was created to calculate reacting force when AFM tip indents the cell in the same way as in real experiment. It was found that our model is capable to draw the information about cells mechanical properties and visco-elastic behavior of cells membranes.

Explicitness of parameters identification in anhysteretic curve of magnetic materials with strong perpendicular anisotropy
Roman Szewczyk
Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP
Abstract: Paper presents the results of verification of the explicitness of determination of parameters for anhysteretic loop in Jiles-Atherton model of magnetic characteristics of strongly anisotropic material. For the experiments the VitroVac 6150F, cobalt-based amorphous alloy with strong perpendicular anisotropy was used. The results indicated, that anhysteretic curve very well represents the shape of magnetic hysteresis loop of such alloys. Moreover, results confirmed the explicitness of model parameters. As a result, anhysteretic curve may represent the shape of magnetic hysteresis loop during the development and optimisation of current transformers based on VitroVac 6150F amorphous alloy.

Simplified modelling the demagnetization of H-bar with method of moments
Roman Szewczyk
Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP
Abstract: Calculation of distribution of flux density in the constructional elements is required in non-destructive testing. Paper presents the simplified method of calculation of flux density distribution in H-bar based on the generalization of the method of moments. In opposite to finite elements method, the method of moments doesn’t require to solve ill-posed differential equations. As a result, the solution together with software presented in the paper can be helpful in the process of non-destructive evaluation of the mechanical stress distribution in ferromagnetic construction elements.

Rotation speed detection of a CNC spindle based on ultrasonic signal
Grzegorz Piecuch
Politechnika Rzeszowska
Abstract: This paper describes the methodology and results of research on distinguishing the rotation speed of a CNC machine spindle with the help of ultrasonic signal as well as a classifier created with the help of neural networks. Tests were carried out on laboratory object in real-time. Achieved research results are very good, and developed possible solutions for use in industry and education. The article describes the problems and the methodology of achieved research, indicates the used hardware and software solutions, as well as an analysis of the results.

Geophysical measurements in the aspect of recognition of discontinuous deformation processes – a case study
Rafał Jendruś
Politechnika Śląska w Gliwicach
Abstract: Article discusses one of the geophysical prospecting methods (Electrical Resistivity Survey – Method) used for solving environmental geoengineering problems. Studying bedding (rock mass) using non-invasive geophysical methods is beneficial particularly because of the ability to obtain complete and very accurate information, depending on adopted research and prospecting approach. Interpretation of geophysical data, should always include available geological, empirical and environmental information, while all results should be presented on integrated profiles and maps. The paper presents analysis of geophysical tests conducted in Triassic strata and assessment of their results, for purposes of an investment located in Tarnowskie Góry, on the post – ore mining area. Electrical resistance survey (ERS) demonstrated presence of numerous low – and high resistive anomalies located both in Triassic strata. ERS data, analysis of geological profiles, fill operations, post-completion ERS, and other observations, allowed evaluation of the ground surface safety in terms of mine subsidence appearance and formulation of recommendations for building designers. The purpose of the conducted geophysical research was to determine the occurrence and location of underground cavities in Triassic formations that could pose a threat of discontinuous deformations on the surface of the considered area.

Estimation of uncertainties of multivariable indirect measurements of two DC electrical circuits
1Zygmunt Warsza, 2Jacek Puchalski
1Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 2Główny Urząd Miar,
Abstract: Signal processing in a multi-variable indirect measurement system and its uncertainties is considered. It was proposed to extend the vector method of estimating uncertainties, given in Supplement 2 to GUM, to the statistical description of the instrumental systems accuracy in indirect multivariable measurements. Formula for the covariance matrix of relative uncertainties is given. The covariance matrixes for measurement parameters of few DC electrical circuits are found, i.e. for measurement of the star circuit resistances from its terminals, measurement of three resistances with using them for three variants of Wheatstone bridge. Formulas for absolute and relative uncertainties and their correlation coefficients are given. The general conclusion is that for the description accuracy of multivariable measurement instrumental systems relative uncertainties are preferable then absolute ones and uncertainties of parameters of the main measurement functions have be considered.

Estimation of linear regression parameters of symmetric non-gaussian errors by polynomial maximization method
1Serhii Zabolotnii, 2Zygmunt Lech Warsza, 1Oleksandr Tkachenko
1Cherkasy State Technological University, Ukraine, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,
Abstract: In this paper, a new way of estimation of single-factor linear regression parameters of symmetrically distributed non-Gaussian errors is proposed. This approach is based on the method of maximizing polynomials (PMM) and uses the description of random variables by higher order statistics (moments and cumulants). Analytical expressions that allow to find estimates and analyze their asymptotic accuracy are obtained for the degree of polynomial S = 3. It is shown that the variance of polynomial estimates can be less than the variance of estimates of the ordinary least squares’ method. The increase of accuracy depends on the values of cumulant coefficients of higher order of the random regression errors. The statistical modeling of the Monte Carlo method has been performed. The results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Uncertainty of measurement and reliability of making decision on compliance
1Еugenij Volodarsky, 2Warsza Zygmunt, 3Larysa Kosheva, 4Maryna Klevtsova
1National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”, Kiev, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 3National Aviation University of Ukraine, Kiev, 4LTD «Svityaz factory», Kiiv, Ukraine,,,
Abstract: It is shown that the probability of making the right decision on the compliance of the object with the norms depends on the measurement uncertainty associated with results of the measurement control of the object parameters and the length of the tolerance interval. The decisive rule on the suitability (unfitness) of the object of control should take into account both the possible uncertainty of the result and the requirements for the cost and complexity of the control procedure, as well as to the specified reliability. To improve the reliability of this procedure, a control method based on a sequential adaptive decision-making procedure is proposed, which takes into account the relationship of the parameters of the distribution law of the possible values of the controlled quantity, random effects in the measurement and the length of the tolerance interval. The decision-making procedure assumes consistently, depending on the result at the current stage, to introduce additional tolerance intervals, the length of which is determined by the parameters of the distribution function of random variables accompanying the measurement of the controlled parameters. The result of measurement of the controlled parameter is compared with these intervals, and decisions on continuation or completion of control with introduction of additional limits are made. This provides a reduction in the probability of erroneous decisions at each additional stage of control, since the time of the initial hit of the controlled value in a consistently calculated controlled interval is determined step by step. The use of a sequential adaptive procedure provides a given reliability of control and does not allow to carry out the control procedure in full for all possible values of the controlled value.

Static field magnetic flux thickness gauge
1Maciej Szudarek, 1Michał Nowicki, 1Filip Wierzbicki, 2Marcin Safinowski
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,
Abstract: Non-destructive testing of coating thickness has long been standard practice. Depending on material and geometric properties of base and coating, different measurement methods are applied. The article presents a simple device to measure coating thickness working on a principle of static field magnetic flux gauge. The device has been tested in the range of (2 – 6000) μm, which is between the usual range of typical thickness gauges operating on ultrasonic or eddy-currents principles. Measurement results are shown. The expanded uncertainty of thickness measurement (k = 2) does not exceed 5% in the range of (2 – 4) mm. Construction of a working test stand constitutes the first step in further study on possible solutions of reducing the measurement uncertainty