March 21-23, 2018 – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP).
3 keynote talks and 79 regular papers in 3 topic sessions.
Titles and abstracts of the papers ordered by topic session are presented below.

Recent advances in damping of vibrations in mechatronic systems
Vytautas Bučinskas
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University
Abstract: Damping of vibrations is long lasting technical task for various technical applications. Suppressing of vibration requires provide energy dissipation means, which requires maintenance during exploitation. Vibrations in mechatronic applications remains actual as object of research and new technical solutions. Implementation of vibration control systems with rheological or ferro-nanomagnetic fluid lets create more efficient damping systems. Semi-active damping systems in various applications are still rare; external energy implementation for damping process not acceptable in mainstream installations. This paper reveals a solution of vibration damping with gaining power from vibrations. Paper presents some efforts to control damping process of robotic machining generated vibrations and automotive body damping with energy harvesting. For both tasks dynamic models created and characteristics obtained in advance the real prototype design were made. Simulation and experimental research of these dampers revealed damping characteristics of these prototypes and harvested energy evaluation. Analysis of damping control request in the automotive vehicle revealed high demand of such feature for comfort enhancement and power generation for internal wireless communication and self-control needs. Presented results of experimental research and simulation of controlled damping devices reveals high potential of smart liquid based damping technology.

Additive Manufacturing – A New Challenge for Automation and Robotics
1Andrzej Nycz, 1Mark Noakes, 2Maciej Cader
1Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,
Abstract: Additive manufacturing (AM) is a rapidly growing technology descended from the first stereolithography systems. AM describes a variety of material deposition technologies for forming objects in a digital manner layer-by-layer under computer control. Now commonly known as 3D printing, AM quickly branched out into several key directions—material extrusion, sheet lamination, direct energy deposition, vat polymerization, powder bed fusion, binder jetting, and material jetting. The common factor in all AM branches is a foundation in robotics and automation. While most of the mechanical 3D printing structures are based on simple gantry systems, there are Gough-Stewart platforms and, more recently, six or more DOF manipulator-based systems that have been developed. Currently available commercial systems are based on open-loop control with minimum sensing capabilities; the latest systems in development are starting to take advantage of complex feedback loops and layers of advanced sensing and data logging. The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility of Oak Ridge Na-tional Laboratory is leading the efforts in applying advanced robotics in the creation of large-scale 3D printers. The recent demonstration of an additively manufactured excavator at the CONEXPO 2017 exhibition in Las Vegas showed that the use of cutting edge robotics and automation is essential for the next generation of additive systems. The future of AM will heavily rely on advanced robotics, machine learning, and the internet of things. This paper summarizes progress in AM; presents the practical aspects, challenges, and lessons learned in developing robotic-based AM systems; and outlines the needs and future directions of robotics for AM.

Optimality in control for wheeled robot
Zenon Hendzel
Politechnika Rzeszowska
Abstract: It was applied in this paper a new approach to the problem of stabilisation of the motion of a wheeled robot in real time, as a mechanical object of unspecific description, considering variable operating conditions. To solve the thus understood motion stabilisation task under disturbance, the author used the type control method. This method is based on a two-person zero-sum differential game theory, in which the game is designed to determine the control to minimise the assumed quality indicator under the most unfavourable interference. This problem is reduced to solving the Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaac (HJI) equation in real time. The simulating example was inserted for the evaluation of analytical considerations, which showed high efficiency of the assumed solution, confirmed by high precision of execution of the set motion of the robot.

Decentralized stabilization of descriptor fractional positive discrete-time linear systems with delays
Lukasz Sajewski
Politechnika Białostocka
Abstract: Decentralized state-feedback method for stabilization of descriptor fractional positive discrete-time linear systems with delays in state-space vector is proposed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the decentralized stabilization of the descriptor fractional positive discrete-time linear systems with delays in state-space vector are established. The proposed method is based on decom-position of the descriptor system to standard and algebraic subsystems. Numeri-cal example is given.

Stability conditions for the new model of fractional discrete-time linear scalar systems with one delay
Andrzej Ruszewski
Politechnika Białostocka
Abstract: In the paper graphical and analytical methods for stability analysis are given for the fractional discrete-time linear scalar systems with one delay described by the new model. The classical D-partition method is used to stability analysis. The practical stability and the asymptotic stability are considered.

Output controllability problem of fractional discrete-time systems with multiple delays in state and control vector
Rafał Kociszewski
Politechnika Białostocka
Abstract: In the paper the problem of output controllability of fractional discrete-time systems with multiple delays in state and control vector is addressed. The conditions of output controllability of considered class of systems are established. The considerations are illustrated by numerical example.

Duality principle for positive discrete-time fractional systems with state delay
Rafał Kociszewski
Politechnika Białostocka
Abstract: In the paper the duality principle for positive fractional discrete-time systems with one delay in state vector is addressed. The simple conditions of duality is established. The considerations are illustrated by an example. Numerical calculations have been done in the Matlab programme environment.

Analysis of the positivity of descriptor continuous-time linear systems by the use of Drazin inverse matrix method
Kamil Borawski
Politechnika Białostocka
Abstract: A new method for computation of the Drazin inverse for a class of square matrices is proposed and the Drazin inverse matrix method is applied to investigate the positivity of descriptor continuous-time linear systems. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the positivity of descriptor linear systems are established. Considerations are illustrated by numerical examples.

Reachability and observability of the fractional linear systems with state and output feedbacks
Tadeusz Kaczorek
Politechnika Białostocka
Abstract: The reachability and observability of the fractional linear discrete-time and continuous-time systems with state and output feedbacks are addressed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the reachability and observability of the systems are established. It is shown that the reachability is invariant under the state feedbacks and the observability under the output feedbacks.

New parameter identication method for the fractional order, state space model of heat transfer process
Krzysztof Oprzędkiewicz, Klaudia Dziedzic
Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. St. Staszica w Krakowie,
Abstract: In the paper parameter identication problem for model of heat transfer process is considered. The system under consideration is described by non integer order, state equation using Caputo operator. The parameters of the model are identied via optimization of the MSE cost function, describing the dierence between step responses of real experimental plant and tested model. The proposed by authors optimization method consists in associating PSO and simplex algorithms. Results of numerical tests point that the proposed method assures good accuracy with short duration of calculations.

Real-time PLC implementations of Fractional Order operator
1Krzysztof Oprzędkiewicz, 2Edyta Gawin, 3Tomasz Gawin
1Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. St. Staszica w Krakowie, 2Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Tarnowie, 3Firma Control Process, Tarnów,,
Abstract: The proposed paper is intended to show a real time implementation of an elementary fractional order, integro-differential operator at PLC platform. The considered element is approximated with the use of known discrete PSE and CFE approximations. The operator we deal with is a crucial part of fractional order PID controller and another FO control algorithms. As an example the implementation at SIEMENS SIMATIC S7 1500 platform is presented. The both proposed approximations PSE and CFE were compared in the sense of accuracy, convergence and PLC execution time. Results of experiments show, that the PLC implementation of the fractional order element using the both approximations can be done with the use of object-oriented approach, the accuracy of approximation is determined by its order. The CFE approximation is much more faster that PSE and its accuracy is comparable to accuracy of PSE.

Particle Filtering in Servo Drive Velocity Control with Fractional-Order PI Controller
Talar Sadalla, Piotr Kozierski, Dariusz Horla, Wojciech Giernacki, Szymon Drgas
Politechnika Poznańska,,,,
Abstract: The main aim of the paper is to compare the closed-loop system with Fractional-order PI and Particle Filter or with Kalman Filter based on quality IAE index. Authors verified the results of the real-world experimental setup which was the Modular Servo System. The article is a combination of authors previous work and implementation of fractional-order PI controller with Parti-cle Filter or Kalman Filter to a real-world system.

Stability Analysis of Fractional-order PI Controller with Anti-windup Compensation for a First-order Simulation Model with Time Delay of a Servo Drive
Talar Sadalla, Dariusz Horla, Wojciech Giernacki, Piotr Kozierski
Politechnika Poznańska,,,
Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to present the analysis of stability regions for the closed-loop system with rst-order linear mo- del of the Inteco Servo Drive with additional time delay and continuous fractional-order PI controller and anti-windup compensators. It is a ex- tension to Authors previous works concerning non-integer order control- lers, in which stability issues are considered by means of BIBO simulation- based tests, with several anti-windup compensation schemes considered. The tuning method of fractional-order PI controller is with respect to Hermite-Biehler and Pontryagin theorems.

Discrete transfer function models for non integer order inertial system
Krzysztof Oprzędkiewicz
Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. St. Staszica w Krakowie
Abstract: In the paper new, discrete, transfer function models of non integer order inertial plant are proposed. These models can be employed to digital modeling of high order dynamic systems, for example heat transfer systems. Models under consideration use Charef approximation and generating functions expressed by schemes given by Euler, Tustin and Al-Aloui. The practical stability and accuracy for all presented models is analysed also. Results are by simulations depicted.

Web service enrichment for sensors exposal: Case study for crisis management systems purposes of the C2-SENSE project
Jan Piwiński, Rafał Kłoda
Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,
Abstract: In this paper the contribution of the C2-SENSE project to improvement of seamless and secure interoperability between currently used radio systems for flood warning systems was presented. The main challenge of the project was to exploit the existing publicly available communication network infrastructure with the possibility to add more sophisticated tools. In this paper we present the physical software profiles development that could be universal for many communication devices for sensors data acquisition. Pre-sented physical profiles contain all crucial data about interface/protocol configu-ration, data workflow and data source description. Furthermore we demonstrat-ed how to connect Physical Interoperability layer with other C2-SENSE com-ponents, in order to create whole Interoperability Framework.

Implementation of IT solutions for the quality management process (TQM) based on ISO 13485 (2016) standard in a biomedical company in Poland
1Marcin Dębowski, 2Roman Szewczyk, 3Alicja Gudanowska
1Firma Valeant Med, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 3Politechnika Białostocka,,
Abstract: Paper presents application oriented analyses for implementation of IT solutions for quality management process in accordance to ISO 13485 (2016) standard. Presented ideas were practically validated in a biomedical company in Poland. Efficiency of proposed implementation model was confirmed quantitatively by OEE indicators. As a result paper can be a practical guideline for further development of quality management system in biomedical factories.

Control Program Development in CPDev Using SFC Language, HMI and Runtime Environment
Dariusz Rzonca, Andrzej Stec, Bartosz Trybus
Politechnika Rzeszowska,,
Abstract: The paper presents the recent approach to SFC development in CPDev engineering environment. A simple sequential tank filling control is described for reference. Using the example, a new SFC editor is presented, together with special function blocks for action management. The development process covers creating a graphical operator HMI which interacts with the SFC control part. It is also shown how the project may be simulated to detect errors. A new scalable runtime supporting large projects with multiple steps and execution paths is presented. The runtime is able to process multiple tasks at a time, so the control and HMI part are executed in parallel at the same machine sharing common variables.

Resource management system for HPC computing
Ewa Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz, Piotr Arabas
Politechnika Warszawska,
Abstract: The concept of the architecture of a control framework for reducing power consumption in a large scale HPC (High Performance Computing) system is presented and discussed. The implementation of this framework provides a global computing resource manager that is implemented in the central control level, energy-efficient backbone network connecting computing farms (clusters) and data centers and a local resource manager implemented in each cluster. The decisions about activity and power status of computer and network equipment are determined by solving the problem of minimizing the energy used by the whole HPC system. A simulation-based optimization scheme is utilized to calculate optimal allocation of a set of tasks to clusters.

Comparative analysis of MP-based solvers to optimize distribution problems in logistics
Wikarek Jarosław, Paweł Sitek, Tadeusz Stefanski
Politechnika Świętokrzyska,,
Abstract: Distribution related problems in logistics have many decision variables and constraints that have to be considered simultaneously. Most often, these are the problems in the discrete optimization branch, modeled and optimized using operational research, in particular mathematical programming (MP) models and methods, such as mixed integer linear programming (MILP), integer programming (IP) and integer linear programming (ILP). These meth-ods become ineffective very quickly in the case of larger size problems. Also, the number of decision variables and constraints may exceed the capacity of available MP solvers. To improve their efficiency and reduce the effective size of the solution space of a given problem, hybrid approaches are being developed, integrating MP with other environments. This article discusses the results of comparative analysis of several MP solvers (LINGO, SCIP, GUROBI) in the context of their use for optimization of selected distribution problems.

Energy consumption optimal control of the train movement
Andrzej Myslinski, Zbigniew Nahorski, Katarzyna Szulc, Weronika Radziszewska
Instytut Badań Systemowych PAN,,,
Abstract: The paper is devoted to the solution of the energy minimization problem for a moving train. The train movement is governed by the system of the first order ordinary differential equations where the train speed and the distance along the track are the state variables. The provided locomotive power depends on the control function. The generated traction force is assumed to depend on the velocity of the train and on the control function. Each non-negative value of the control function determines a traction force control while negative values determine a braking force control. The cost functional is defined as the train energy. It is dependent on traction force, speed and control functions. The speed, distance and control functions are assumed bounded. Using the maximum principle and Lagrangian multipliers the system of equations constituting the necessary optimality conditions is formulated. Based on the analysis of the train movement the optimal trajectories in terms of train speed and associated optimal control functions are calculated. A new simplified method is used to calculate the set of the switching times implementing the optimal control function. Numerical examples are provided and discussed.

A system for weeds and crops identification based on Convolutional Neural Network
1Łukasz Chechliński, 1Barbara Siemiątkowska, 2Michał Majewski
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2Firma MCMS Warka,,
Abstract: This paper presents an early step towards an autonomous weeding system. The system is based on the Deep Convolutional Neural Network (Deep ConvNet, CNN). CNNs reached state-of-the-art results in many computer vision tasks. However, their result is strongly related to the network architecture, as well as quality and quantity of the training data, and the data collection is time-consuming. In this paper, we will present how to find the first approximation of the network architecture and the data quantity, based on two sequences of 100 crop images. The obtained accuracy level equals to 96-98%. The presented approach will be used to train and test the CNN on larger datasets in the future work.

Control of a Servopneumatic Drive Using a Microcontroller
Krzysztof Nowak, Małgorzata Łaganowska
Politechnika Świętokrzyska,
Abstract: This study involved selecting parameters for a PID controller and a fuzzy logic controller employed to control an electropneumatic servodrive. The fuzzy logic controller was a multiple input single output (MISO) system with two inputs and one output. 25 MacVikar-Whelan rules were the rule base of the fuzzy logic controller. The minimum T-norm and the maximum T-conorm were the implication and aggregation operators, respectively. The defuzzification process was conducted using the center of gravity method (COG). The control algorithms were implemented in a speedgoat hardware and software real time system and a STM32 microcontroller. The performance of the control systems was assessed by comparing the values of the performance criteria. Responses to step and pulse input signals in shift control and ramp and sine input signals in follow-up control were also analyzed. The experimental data show that further research is required on this topic.

Control software development methodology for programmable sawmill appliances
Mateusz Wietecha, Bartosz Trybus
Politechnika Rzeszowska,
Abstract: The article presents an engineering methodology for developing of control software dedicated for sawmill appliances. The methodology consists of subsequent phases, similarly as in GRAFPOL [1]. The software is created according to IEC 61131-3 standard in SFC (Sequential Function Chart) and LD (Ladder Diagram) languages. The proposed approach is described in a guided form, including a set of programming rules and tips which may be directly followed by an engineer. Practical examples are also given, involving control of a sawmill cutting machine.

Complex approach to the control of car body buffering in the paint shop
1Sara Alszer, 1Jolanta Krystek, 2Szymon Bysko
1Politechnika Śląska, 2Firma ProPoint,,
Abstract: The paper presents the approach to the car buffering problem in the paint shop from the perspective of modern industrial plant requirements. The control of buffering process is connected with sequencing problem. A sequence, in which car bodies are painted is particular important, because the minimization of the number of painting guns changeovers results in minimizing production costs. The problem of car sequencing has been widely considered in a literature. However, a large number of assumptions and simplifications, made by the researches, make it impossible to apply developed solutions in practice. The paper considers the car sequencing issue taking into account problems that occur on the production line in the real paint shop. After presenting the algorithm, used in the analyzed plant, four sequencing algorithms, used to define the output sequence from the buffer, are discussed. Two algorithms are modifications of the well known scheduling heuristics – that are SPT and LPT methods. Based on these rules and follow-up control idea two new algorithms are proposed. The input sequence is determined in one of two ways. The correctness of the car body buffer control in the paint shop was verified in the test carried out using innovative method – virtual commissioning. The aim of the research was to identify the most effective methods that will be developed in the future. During tests, the buffer flow was monitored in order to identify unfavorable buffering situations deemed unacceptable in real conditions. The most unfavorable cases are presented and discussed in the article.

Performance analysis of dual-axis solar tracking system
Wojciech Trzasko
Politechnika Białostocka
Abstract: The paper presents the experimental operational results of dual-axis solar tracking system during March 2015 to September 2017. The analysed plant, with a total capacity 3kWp, is installed in the campus of Bialystok University of Technology (Bialystok, north-east Poland). The performance of the solar tracker was analysed and compared with the static solar panel. The influence of the solar tracking system on the photovoltaic power generation in the urban area using the case study of the Bialystok city is discussed. The results show that the two-axis tracking system has increased the annual energy production by approximately 40% compared with that obtained from the fixed panel tilted at 38° towards the south. The method for improving accuracy of control algorithm on the dual-axis solar tracker is presented.

A Cascade PD Controller for Heavy Self-Balancing Robot
Michał Okulski, Maciej Ławryńczuk
Politechnika Warszawska,
Abstract: This paper describes a design of a control system for dynamic equilibrium finding of a heavy self-balancing (two-wheeled) robot. Two cascade-connected Proportional-Derivative (PD) controllers are used to balance the robot and keep the desired driving speed (or standing still). A simple and efficient algorithm for tilt calculation takes data from three sensors: a gyroscope, an accelerometer and a contactless magnetic encoder. The PD controller output is combined with manual (remote) driving signals to control Electronic Speed Controllers (ESC) of two high-torque electric motors. Finally, experimental results and recommendations to cope with difficulties are discussed.

Real-Time and Low Phase Shift Noisy Signal Differential Estimation Dedicated to Teleoperation Systems
Mateusz Saków
Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny w Szczecinie
Abstract: The paper contains a description of a real-time differentiation algorithm dedicated for teleoperation systems. The algorithm is based on the least squares polynomial approximation method and it is a modified version of a local and nearest neighbors samples based approach. The algorithm fits a defined polynomial to an asymmetric data set. In this case neighbor samples are only on the one side of the filtered vector of a signal samples. This feature allowed to significantly reduce the value of the phase shift, especially for a low frequency spectrum, where man-machine control interfaces are usually operating. The strong reduction of a phase shift allowed to minimize the variable time delay of the estimated signal differential according to a measured control signal.

Transport Delay and First Order Inertia Time Signal Prediction Dedicated to Teleoperation
Mateusz Saków, Karol Miądlicki
Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny w Szczecinie,
Abstract: In the paper a sensor-less control scheme for a bilateral teleoperation system with a force-feedback based on a prediction of an input of a non-linear inverse model by prediction blocks is presented. The prediction method was designed to minimize the effect of the transport delay and the phase shift of sensors, actuators and mechanical objects. The solution is an alternative to complex non-linear models like artificial neural networks, which requires complex stability analysis and control systems with high computing power. Also, in this paper we had compared a transport delay and first order inertia continues approach. The effectiveness of both approaches has been verified on the hydraulic manipulator test stand.

Temperature Forecasting for Energy Saving in Smart Buildings based on Fuzzy Cognitive Map
1Katarzyna Poczęta, 1Łukasz Kubuś, 1Alexander Yastrebov, 2Elpiniki Papageorgiou
1Politechnika Świętokrzyska, 2Technological Educational Institute of Central Greece,,,
Abstract: One of the way to save energy in smart buildings is the prediction of the variables that affect energy consumption. The aim of this paper is the application of fuzzy cognitive map for indoor temperature forecasting. Fuzzy cognitive map is is a soft computing technique that describes the analyzed problem as a set of concepts and connections between them. The developed evolutionary algorithm for fuzzy cognitive maps learning is used to select the most significant concepts (sensors in a smart building) and determine the weights of the connections. The data captured in the SMLsystem created at the Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera for participation in the Solar Decathlon 2013 competition were used in the experiments. Results show a high forecasting accuracy and they could be used to control smart building and to reduce the number of required sensors.

Autonomous stand for 3D printing and machine vision system
Tymoteusz Lindner, Daniel Wyrwał, Arkadiusz Kubacki
Politechnika Poznańska,,
Abstract: In this paper the authors presented the prototype of the stand for autonomous 3D printing and machine vision using POWERLINK. The main goal of this project is to automate the process and eliminate the operator. Process starting with a customer, who via the webpage order the product (server is running on Raspberry Pi). A product is created and modified by the customer at the time of ordering. All orders are queued and the buyer gets feedback on the order acceptance, product ID, and estimated waiting time. The user can view the order status at any time by entering product ID on the webpage, PLC B&R reads the product data using POWERLINK and starts production. 3D printer is controlled by the B&R PLC. Part of the process is controlled by a second Raspberry Pi, that regulates the temperature of the nozzle and the temperature of the bed using thermistors and heaters. Raspberry Pi sends data to main PLC. After printing, machine vision system plugged into POWERLINK network checks the quality of the printed product and sends feedback information to the PLC.

The Investigations of Hydraulic Heave Compensation System
Arkadiusz Jakubowski, Andrzej Milecki
Politechnika Poznańska,
Abstract: In the paper, a review of the current state of the knowledge in the field of heave compensation systems is presented. Three most important types of heave com-pensation systems such as: passive (PHC), active (AHC) and semi-active (hy-brid) are described in more detail. Special attention is given to show the differ-ences between presented in this paper heave compensation systems. In the paper also the developed by authors simulation model and test stand of hydraulic heave compensation solution is described. Its chosen simulation and experimental in-vestigation results are presented.

Methods of automatic artifact removal in neurobiological signals
Konrad Ciecierski
Abstract: Analysis of registered signals is often a basis for decision making in various automation or decision support systems. Signals may contain noise and artifacts that are produced either by an environment or just are due to the method of their acquisition. In many cases, when the acquired signal is too contaminated, it is simply recorded once more. In some applications however, the re-recording is not feasible due to the fast paced changes in observed environment or due to application specific reasons. This is the cease during neurosurgical Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) surgery when signals are recorded by electrodes inserted into patient’s brain. The recording of brain tissue electrical activity is done only once at any given location. As the presence of the artifacts heavily influences the signal characteristics, they have to be removed. The removal has also to salvage as much of the original recording as possible. This paper shows different approaches to the problem of the removal of the contaminating artifacts from the DBS recordings.

Use of Electrooculography (EOG) and facial expressions as part of the brain-computer interface (BCI) for controlling an electric DC motor
Arkadiusz Kubacki, Piotr Owczarek, Tymoteusz Lindner
Politechnika Poznańska,,
Abstract: The article describes design process of a controlling an electric DC motor based on Electrooculography (EOG). In first paragraph authors presented information about Electroencephalography (EEG) and Electrooculography (EOG). Authors performed a literature overview concerning on that two techniques. In the next step, authors implemented simplified mathematical model of DC motor and PID controller. The system was built with used of the bioactive sensors mounted on the head, which was triggered by the signal from eyes movement and facial ex-pressions. The built interface has been tested. Three experiments were created. In all three experiments, three people aged 25-35 were involved. Each of them con-ducted from 5 to 10 attempts each scenario. Between attempts respondent had a 1-minute break. Each scenario was more difficult than before. The investigators attempted to enter a virtual red dot into the green square using only eyes move-ment and blinking.

Hybrid brain-computer interface (BCI) based on Electrooculography (EOG) and center eye tracking
Arkadiusz Kubacki
Politechnika Poznańska
Abstract: The article describes design process of building hybrid brain-computer interface based on Electrooculography (EOG) and center eye tracking. In first paragraph author presented information about Electroencephalography (EEG) and it classi-fication. Author performed a literature overview concerning on hybrid BCIs. In the next step, authors implemented center eye tracking library. The system was built with used of the bioactive sensors mounted on the head, which was trig-gered by the signal from eyes movement by EOG and eye tracking. The built in-terface has been tested. Two experiments were created. In all experiments, three people aged 25-35 were involved. Recorded 30 attempts per scenario. Between attempts respondent had a 1-minute break. The investigators attempted to enter a virtual red dot into the green square using only eyes movement and blinking.

Some problems of aerodynamic and lateral-jet blended control for the surface-to-air missile
Robert Głębocki, Mariusz Jacewicz, Rafał Ożóg
Politechnika Warszawska,,
Abstract: This paper presents autopilot design methodology for surface-to-air missile which uses aerodynamic and lateral jet blended control. The designed projectile is equipped in a set of small rocket engines which can produce lateral forces. The influence of various control parameters on missile flight dynamics were studied. It was obtained that presented method of control improves significantly missile maneuverability. Shorter response times and better projectile accuracy were achieved when compared only to pure aerodynamic control. Simulation results in form of graphs are presented and discussed.

Communication and Control Software Development for Experimental Unmanned Aerial System – Selected Issues
Dariusz Rzonca, Sławomir Samolej, Dariusz Nowak, Tomasz Rogalski
Politechnika Rzeszowska,,,
Abstract: Recently the functionality and applicability of Unmanned Aerial Systems have been dynamically growing. In the paper such an experimental system, based on the “MP-02 Czajka” ultra light plane, is presented. Generation of the C source code for the autopilot firmware in the Matlab environment is discussed. Furthermore, several issues raised during implementation of the STANAG 4586 communication protocol are considered.

A diophantine set-driven approach to part sets cycle time scheduling and repetitive flow balancing
1Grzegorz Bocewicz, 2Izabela Nelsen, 1Zbigniew Banaszak
1Politechnika Koszalińska, 2Aalborg University, Denmark,,
Abstract: The problem studied in this paper is a cyclic job-shop problem with multiple AGVs. Job batches, which follow specific production routes, are processed in order of their operations on multiple machines with standard processing times, and the fleet of AGVs perform the transportation operations of moving job batches between the workstations. In this system, part sets of items are produced at fixed time intervals. In the adopted model, a layer of station-to-station transport, which is a network of local loops connecting subsets of workstations serviced cyclically by dedicated AGVs, and a layer of repetitive production flows which comprise task batches following a given set of production routes are distinguished. A set of nonlinear Diophantine equations describes the relationship between the elements of the structure of the system and its potential behavior. The resulting Diophantine sets enable fast evaluation, although limited to integers, of production flow parameters including part sets, cycle time and takt time, as well as repetitive-flow balancing aimed at maximization of the rate of system resource utilization. The high efficiency of the proposed Diophantine-set-driven approach is a consequence of omitting the time-consuming calculation of task timing and sequencing.

Hybrid energy storage based on ultracapacitor and lead acid battery: case study
1Ewa Jankowska, 1Karol Kopciuch, 1Magdalena Błażejczak, 1Włodzimierz Majchrzycki, 2Piotr Piórkowski, 2Adrian Chmielewski, 2Krzysztof Bogdziński
1Instytut Metali Nieżelaznych, Oddział w Poznaniu, 2Politechnika Warszawska,,,,,,
Abstract: In the following work research on lead acid battery – ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage was presented. The maximum output power and energy storage capabilities of the mentioned storage units were sufficient enough to start up an internal combustion engine of a passenger car in standard operating conditions. In the article the internal combustion engine start up process with implementation of a hybrid energy storage with battery and ultracapacitor connected in series, was analyzed. Based on conducted research it was concluded, that using a ultracapacitor and lead-acid battery in a hybrid system leads to complementation of operational parameters (i.e. high energy density and high power density is achieved) for both components in suboptimal conditions, such as low ambient temperature or low state of charge of the battery. Analysis of lead-acid battery and ultracapacitor characteristics as independent units and in hybrid configuration proved positive cooperation of both energy storage types. The research conducted presents the difference in behavior of systems based on type of ultrcapacitor used in engine start-up conditions.

A Comparison Between Isolated and Non-Isolated Dual Inductor-Fed DC/DC Boost Converters
Adam Krupa, Jakub Dawidziuk
Politechnika Białostocka,
Abstract: In this paper two DC/DC boost converter topologies: isolated half-bridge DC/DC boost converter and current-fed push-pull DC/DC boost converter were compared. Both converters are designed to meet the demand for high efficiency and high voltage gain in low input voltage and high current applications such as renewable energy systems. The comparison has been made taking into consideration the efficiency, voltage gain and range of changes of duty cycle. In order to verify theoretical assumptions and principle of operation two prototypes were designed and compared in the same working conditions. Converters achieved efficiencies over 94% and voltage gain greater than 8.

A Comparison Between Two Current-Fed Step-up DC/DC Converters
Adam Krupa, Jakub Dawidziuk
Politechnika Białostocka,
Abstract: In this paper two DC/DC boost converter topologies: isolated half-bridge DC/DC boost converter and current-fed push-pull DC/DC boost converter were compared. Both converters are designed to meet the demand for high efficiency and high voltage gain in low input voltage and high current applications such as renewable energy systems. The comparison has been made taking into consideration the efficiency, voltage gain and range of changes of duty cycle. In order to verify theoretical assumptions and principle of operation two prototypes were designed and compared in the same working conditions. Converters achieved efficiencies over 94% and voltage gain greater than 8.

Model-based research on ultracapacitors
Adrian Chmielewski, Piotr Piórkowski, Robert Gumiński, Krzysztof Bogdziński, Jakub Możaryn
Politechnika Warszawska,,,,
Abstract: The following article presents the analytical basis and research results for ultracapacitors, acquired purposely built test stand for dynamic load cycle tests. Furthermore, three methods allowing for determination of ultraca-pacitor model parameters were presented in the work. First was the off-line identification in time domain method, involving minimization of the mean square error of model response and element response alignment for given input. Second method was off-line identification in frequency domain, involving application of least squares method with implemented model response correction procedure. Third method was on-line identification which allowed for determination of model parameters in real time with use of Kalman filter. The methods presented can be applied in research of other types of energy storage systems, i.e.: electrochemical batteries or hybrid energy storage systems.

Test stand research on ICE engine powered by an alternative fuel
Adrian Chmielewski, Robert Gumiński, Artur Małecki, Tomasz Mydłowski, Krzysztof Bogdziński
Politechnika Warszawska,,,,
Abstract: In the article presented were research results on effects of ignition advance angle change on shape of open and closed indicator graphs for a Honda NXH 110 engine powered by alternative fuels, i.e. E85, CNG, biogas and Pb95 petrol. Presented as well was the effect of ignition advance angle on mechanical power and torque figures produced by the engine. The research measurements were performed for engine under full load, on an engine test stand located at Faculty of Automotive and Construction Machinery Engi-neering, Warsaw university of Technology. Furthermore, the effects of igni-tion advance angle change on engine’s indicated work was presented.

Comparison of Configurations of Inertial Measurement Units for Determination of Motion Parameters of Mobile Robots – Part 1: Theoretical Considerations
Przemysław Dąbek, Maciej Trojnacki
Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,
Abstract: The paper is concerned with the problem of determination of motion parameters of a mobile robot using Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) in three different configurations. The practical goal of this research is investigation of possibilities of improvement of quality of data obtained from a 3D scanning head thanks to the application of information about motion parameters of the robot in a cost effective way. PIAP GRANITE four-wheeled skid-steered mobile robot was used as a mobile platform for the investigations. The following configurations of IMUs are considered: 1st – comprising one 3-axis accelerometer and one 3-axis gyroscope located in central part of the robot, 2nd – consisting of four identical 3-axis gyroscopes located on the robot to reduce the effect of drift of measurement of the angular velocities, 3rd – containing four 3-axis accelerometers deployed in different locations on the robot to realize so-called Gyroscope-Free Inertial Measurement Unit. The three configurations of IMUs are discussed and formulas for obtaining the motion parameters are given. In Part 2 of this article, the results of experimental research involving the three above mentioned configurations of IMUs are presented and discussed.

Comparison of Configurations of Inertial Measurement Units for Determination of Motion Parameters of Mobile Robots – Part 2: Experimental Investigations
Przemysław Dąbek, Maciej Trojnacki
Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,
Abstract: The paper is concerned with the problem of determination of motion parameters of a mobile robot using Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) in three different configurations. The practical goal of this research is investigation of possibilities of improvement of quality of data obtained from a 3D scanning head thanks to the application of information about motion parameters of the robot in a cost effective way. PIAP GRANITE four-wheeled skid-steered mobile robot was used as a mobile platform for the investigations. In Part 1 of the paper, the three configurations of IMUs are discussed and formulas for obtaining the motion parameters are given. In Part 2, methods discussed in Part 1 are compared experimentally. Main metrological properties of the IMUs used during experiments are provided. The precisions of measurements for particular configurations of IMUs were estimated using the introduced quality indexes. Main findings are stated in the conclusion.

Implementation of Peripheral Vision in a Hybrid Field of View Sensor
Marta Rostkowska, Marek Wąsik, Piotr Skrzypczynski
Politechnika Poznańska,,
Abstract: In this article we demonstrate a new vision sensor, which mimics the omnidirectional vision capabilities of insects, and the visual attention mechanisms in more complicated animals. The self-contained sensor is based on a recent single-board embedded computer with a Graphics Processing Unit. It employs an omnidirectional camera and a perspective camera, to provide the ability to quickly recognize objects and events in the vicinity, and to focus the visual attention on selected objects in real-time.

Exploring a surface using RFID grid and group of mobile robots
Marcin Hubacz, Bartosz Pawłowicz, Bartosz Trybus
Politechnika Rzeszowska,,
Abstract: The paper deals with discovering a surface covered with a grid of RFID transponders using a group of robots and a master control unit. The robots move across the surface, read data from the transponders and send it to the master. The master collects the data, analyze it to create a map and sends commands to the robots. This way optimization of robot movements is possible and various discovery strategies may be implemented. Two types of RFID grid have been considered: square- and triangle-based. A laboratory prototype has been created with class 2.0 robots and the master unit running CPDev SFC program under Windows IoT.

A practical low-cost navigation system for RGBD based mobile robotics
1Daniel Koguciuk, 2Tomasz Gąsior
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2Uniwersytet Warszawski,
Abstract: We present a practical low-cost navigation system for RGBD based mobile robotics. Our system consists of two RGBD cameras connected to a mobile robot equipped with an NVidia Jetson TK1 board. To demonstrate the system, we emulate a laser scanner sensor using RGBD data and GPU based software. We then use a map building task to compare the emulation with a real laser scanner system. The source code, for our research, is open sourced.

On Automatic Parameter Optimization in a RGB-D Visual Localization System
Aleksander Kostusiak
Politechnika Poznańska
Abstract: Reliable visual localization is of high importance in many practical applications. Though RGB-D Visual Oodmetry is commonly used in applications and as a basis for more complicated Simultaneous Localization and Mapping systems, the diversity of details in the known solutions makes it hard to tell how the particular design choices and parameter values influence the performance. Therefore, in this paper we investigate whenever it is possible to automatize the selection of param- eters for a simple, feature-based RGB-D Visual Odometry system. We assume a fixed structure of the Visual Odometry pipeline, and employ a population-based optimization algorithm to find the best parameters. The experiments are performed using publicly available data sets to en- sure that the results are verifiable.

Robotic Systems Implementation Based on FSMs
1Cezary Zieliński, 1Maksym Figat, 2René Hexel
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2Griffith University, Australia,,
Abstract: The paper presents a robotic system development methodology starting with the creation of a system model and ending with its implementation. The methodology is based on the concept of an embodied agent, which is decomposed into subsystems. The activities of those subsystems are described in terms of FSMs which invoke behaviours parameterised by transition functions taking as arguments the contents of subsystem input buffers and their internal memory. Those theoretical concepts are transformed into such implementation concepts as: hierarchical LLFSM, scheduler and whiteboard. The proposed design methodology is illustrated on a table-tennis ball collecting robot. Moreover, the evaluation of the performance of the resulting system is presented.

Mechanical Design and Control of Compliant Leg for a Quadruped Robot
Dominik Belter, Michał Zieliński
Politechnika Poznańska,
Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new mammal-like mechanical design of the compliant robotic leg. We propose the application of elastic components to reduce the mechanical impact during landing phase and protect the gearboxes of the servomotors. We also use the elastic tendon which stores the energy in springs. The stored energy is then released at the beginning of the flight phase to increase the height of the jump. We propose and verify the dynamic model of the leg. Finally, in the series of experiments, we show the mechanical properties of the leg.

Identification and Evaluation of a Model of an Orthotic Robot Based on Experimental Research
Karol Bagiński, Jakub Wierciak, Wojciech Credo
Politechnika Warszawska,,
Abstract: Modelling plays a fundamental role in the design of mechatronic systems. It is particularly important at the stage of selection of technical solutions and constructional parameters for actuators and sensors. If the simulation model is very complex, the credibility of the results obtained with its use becomes crucial. The authors have attempted to evaluate the simulation model of the orthotic robot. The article presents the concept, course and results of the research carried out for this evaluation.

Autonomous agricultural robot – testing of the vision system for plants/weed classification
Marcin Jasiński, Jędrzej Mączak, Przemysław Szulim, Stanisław Radkowski
Politechnika Warszawska,,,
Abstract: The aim of the paper was to present results of the vision system for plants/weeds classification testing of autonomous robot for sowing and wide row planting. Autonomous work of the robot in range of traction and agronomic processes will be implemented on the basis of data from a many sensors (cameras, position and distance. Positive test results will allow for the use of the robot in organic crops requiring mechanical removal of weeds or in crops with application of selective liquid agrochemicals limited to the minimum. Unless the control systems are improved and development costs are compensated, the production of autonomous agricultural systems will increase. So that very important is mentioned in this paper, vision system of plant/weed classification. The vision system for sugar beet /weed and sweet corn / weed classification was build and tested. The position of each plant must be determined for intra-row weeding. This means that plants have to be classified into two classes, i.e., sugar beet (sweet corn) or weed.

Design and kinematic analysis of the parallel robot 4-DoF SCARA
Anna Maria Annusewicz, Pawel Andrzej Laski
Politechnika Świętokrzyska,
Abstract: The subject of the article is a design of the robot with closed kinematic chain with three degrees of freedom. The paper presents the design of a 4-DoF SCARA me-chanical robot and a gear unit that is part of its propulsion system. A simple and inverse task of kinematics was solved. On the basis of the equations of forward kinematics, the work space was defined.

The Design and Application of Wireless 3D Tool for Offline Programming of Soldering Robot
Dominik Rybarczyk, Andrzej Milecki
Politechnika Poznańska,
Abstract: In the work presented in this paper a new robotized soldering station is designed and developed using of the wireless tool (a type of pointer) for intuitive programming of the soldering robot. At first the general structure of the soldering station is described. In this station the SCARA type robot is used, on which ending the inductive soldering iron is mounted. In the next part of the article the soldering robot programing is shortly presented. The structure of designed and developed special wireless pointer is described. This pointer is used for setting of the soldering iron orientation in the working space. The software prepared for this setting and the programming procedures are described. Finally the built system is presented and proofed.

Operational research of VRLA battery
Adrian Chmielewski, Krzysztof Bogdziński, Robert Gumiński, Przemysław Szulim, Piotr Piórkowski, Jakub Możaryn, Jędrzej Mączak
Politechnika Warszawska,,,,,,
Abstract: In the following article research results for VRLA gel battery performance in the dynamic load cycle is presented. The research was conducted for sever-al-hundred consecutive charging/discharging cycles. In the work there are presented changes of usable capacity of the battery and impact on a life-time of the battery in dynamic load conditions. Thre is also presented the effect of load current value on heat emission process, caused by an increase of temperature values on the battery casing and terminals. Acquired results are compared to operational conditions provided by the manufacturer. The re-search was conducted on two factory new VRLA batteries, which in the course of the tests were completely worn out.

Zrobotyzowane stanowisko kabinowe typu Plug and Produce w koncepcji Przemysłu 4.0
Arkadiusz Adamczak, Marcin Nowicki
Firma ZAP-Robotyka,
Abstract: Złożone procesy wytwórcze wymagają stosowania zaawansowanych technologii w nowoczesnych stanowiskach zautomatyzowanych i zrobotyzowanych. W technologiach spajania realizowane obecnie stanowiska nie tylko dostarczają prawidłowo pospawane produkty ale oczekują od nich również pełnej kontroli danych procesowych z możliwością ich analizy w dowolnym miejscu poza stanowiskiem. Nie mniej ważnym elementem w sytuacji ograniczonej przestrzeni na halach produkcyjnych jest nieskomplikowana zmiana lokalizacji stanowiska. W artykule przedstawiono koncepcję zrobotyzowanego stanowiska spawalniczego o wysokiej wydajności typu Plug and Produce z możliwością przekazywania danych procesowych do serwera zewnętrznego.

Safe human-robot interaction – a real need or a temporary trend among domestic SMEs
Joanna Kulik, Lukasz Wojtczak
Przemyslowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarow PIAP,
Abstract: The subject of the article is to present the specifics of robotization of small and medium-sized production enterprises (SMEs) in Poland, in particular including cooperative and collaborative robots (cooperation, collaboration). Current global directions and trends in the development of industrial robotics in these areas will be presented At the same time, the article presents the security aspect as the most important element of direct human-robot interaction. Those two directions of cooperation between man and robot, which are gaining increasing popularity, are in practice already implemented at production sites. To zoom in, the first of these is cooperation, understood here as a cooperation between man and robot, almost standard (in the control version commonly known as safety), without fences. In turn, the second one is collaboration and under this concept, for the purposes of this study, it means the cooperation of the person “shoulder to shoulder”, with the robot.

Review of the PIAP-OBRUSN implementations
Agnieszka Staniszewska
Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, Oddział w Toruniu
Abstract: The study is a review of examples of recent implementations made by the scientific unit PIAP-OBRUSN in the field of automation and robotization of production processes. For each of the presented implementations, the client’s needs and solutions proposed by the above-mentioned scientific unit were described. Presented are such solutions as: full robotic welding station with a six-axis robot and two positioners, welding station with robot and positioner for proper positioning of buckets for construction machines during welding, robotic station for the production of injection molds, special machine with positioner and dosing head, technological line for the production of rolled mats made of reinforcing bars, milling plotter with two heads working simultaneously and an additional axis used for moving the processed beam, milling machine with automatic tool change and saw for cutting details for the company specializing in the production of special vehicles, special machine for production large-size spatial letters for a company from the advertising industry, a system for feeding and receiving sheets for the floor system, a device for thermal forming of PVC badge. The nature of research carried out in connection with the implementations is briefly described. Each implementation has a description of the technology used, a general presentation of mechanical and software solutions. In addition, the production processes are described, which takes place using the devices presented in the study. The article also presents the profile and areas of activity of the scientific unit PIAP-OBRUSN and its short characteristics.

Crop monitoring for nitrogen nutrition level by digital camera
1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Vitaliy Lysenko, 2Oleksiy Opryshko, 2Dmiyriy Komarchyk, 2Natalya Pasichnyk, 1Andrzej Juś
1Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 2National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine,,,,,
Abstract: Perspective parameters of measurements by selecting the scene modes for corn plants photographing with a digital camera are determined. The digital camera can be used in the field to indicate the level of nitrogen nutrition of corn without additional artificial illumination. The most prospective camera’s scene mode is “daylight” for the “white balance” setting. The future researches are needed to investigate the relationship between the plant optical parameters and plant nitrogen nutrition provision at different growth stages.

Research of the new type of compression sensor
1Vytautas Bučinskas, 1Ernestas Sutinys, 1Nikolaj Sesok, 1Igor Iljin, 1Tadas Lenkutis, 1Gabriele Keraite, 1Sigitas Petkevicius, 2Zygmunt Lech Warsza
1Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,,,,,
Abstract: Measuring process of physical parameters for mechatronic system well developed and available sensors covers vast amount of interest area. Nevertheless, there are areas with some requests for sensors with special properties. Many applications require sensors, able to operate in harsh conditions. This paper provides some attempt to create compression sensor for applications with temperatures over 350 degrees centigrade and stiffness of sensor, close to concrete stiffness. Such sensor created and tested in order to obtain its reliability for long term measurement parameters, repeatability and dynamic mode of loading. Sensor sensitive parameter is electrical resistance and therefore data acquisition is widely available and convenient to implement. Experimental research performed using computer-controlled compression machine with several models of loading. Results of test statistically processed, and main parameters revealed as positive and fulfilling given requirements. Dynamic loading of sensor showed hysteresis of load-resistance characteristics and thus finds critical frequency for this particular dimension of sensor. Analysis of such compression force sensor request in the concrete structures or asphalt revealed high demand of such device, therefore requirements for thermal stability and structural resistance became essential. Presented results of experimental research and evaluation of sensor parameters reveals high potential of its implementing into structures for safety and operation mode definition.

Some problem of inertial measurement units modeling in Matlab and Matlab Simulink
Iryna Baranovska, Robert Glebocki, Rafal Ozog
Politechnika Warszawska,,
Abstract: Paper presents work based on the comparative analysis of output signals errors of primary measuring instruments of the inertial measuring module, such as – accelerometers and gyroscopes. With use of the identified parameters of metrological model of the inertial measuring module, and mathematical program providing Matlab and Matlab-Simulnk. By results of modeling it is carried out the analysis of output signals errors of the measuring IMU converters, on the basis of two types of modeling in the Matlab environment: with application of listing and M-file, and with creation of Simulink model with use of auxiliary blocks “From-file” and “Subsystem”.

Microprocessor based Assmann psychrometer
1Grzegorz Komor, 1Michał Nowicki, 1Klaudia Biś, 2Roman Szewczyk
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,
Abstract: The purposess of this article are to describe the process of building, programming and testing of the microprocessor based Assmann psychrometer. Studies were conducted based on a thesis in Institute of Metrology and Bioengineering, faculty Mechatronics of Warsaw University of Technology. The main task was to implement modern components to a conventional construction of the psychrometer, as a way to increase its functionality. Psychrometers were designed for measuring relative humidity. The measure of humidity is based on the difference of indication of two sensors – dry bulb thermometer (ambient conditions) and wet bulb thermometer (100% humidity conditions). Under the influence of air movement, water evaporates from the thermometer cooling down the surface of the wet bulb sensor. Using mathematical transformations of the temperatures and making additional measurements (air flow, atmospheric pressure), the device is now able to calculate the relative humidity. The main component in the device is a microcontroller – KAmduino Uno which is connected to two thermometers, an atmospheric pressure sensor, an universal DTH22 sensor and a LCD display. The microprocessor allows not only immediate calculation but also archiving data using a serial port monitor. Calculations are based on the Sprung and Buck models. The device monitors the presence of critical errors such as sensor disconnection or over-measuring. Finally, calibration of thermometers, tests, measurements and validation of the device were conducted.

Digitally controlled thermoelectric ammeter
1Beata Lewandowska, 1Michal Nowicki, 1Tomasz Charubin, 2Roman Szewczyk
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,
Abstract: The main objective of this thesis was the development of fully functional microprocessor controlled thermoelectric ammeter for laboratory and di-dactic purposes. Project is based on analog thermoammeter transducer, Kam-duino platform and thermocouple transducer with cold junction temperature compensation. The main advantage of this unit is direct measurement of the effective value of the electrical current (True RMS), regardless of the shape and frequency of the signal, combined with modern signal processing and data output capabilities.

Analysing the error of temperature difference measurement with Platinum Resistance Thermometers
Tadeusz Goszczynski
Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP
Abstract: An analysis of error in temperature difference measurement using pairs of platinum resistance thermometers (PRT) is presented. Nonlinearity of its characteristic makes procedure for calculating value of maximal error in the full range of measurements time consuming. For the range between 0 °C to 661 °C Standard EN 60751 defines the equation for PRT resistance versus temperature relation as quadratic equation and for range –200 °C to 0 °C as equation of third grade. The author has developed the method of calculation using search for extremum place in error characteristics of every thermometers pair.

Two step, differential evolution-based identification of parameters of Jiles-Atherton model of magnetic hysteresis loops
Roman Szewczyk
Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP
Abstract: Paper presents new method of identification of parameters of Jiles-Atherton model of magnetic hysteresis loops. The method utilizes physical principles of this model. In the described solution, parameters of anhysteretic curve are identified first. Next, parameters determining hysteresis are calculated on the base of set of hysteresis loops measured for different amplitudes of magnetizing field. Both identifications use differential evolutionary strategies method. The efficiency of proposed method is shown on the basis of parameters identification results for Mn-Zn ferrite for power applications.

Modified description of magnetic hysteresis in Jiles-Atherton model
1Peng Cheng, 2Roman Szewczyk
1Mid Sweden University, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,
Abstract: Paper presents new idea of modelling the magnetic hysteresis in the Jiles-Atherton model. Presented approach considers physical principles of magnetisation process and main assumptions of Jiles-Atherton model. As a result modified differential equation stating the model was proposed. This equation was verified on the base of magnetic hysteresis loops of non grain oriented electrical steel. Presented results indicate, that proposed approach to modelling the magnetic hysteresis loops well correspond with results of experimental measurements.

Temperature influence on Matteucci Effect in Fe-based amorphous wire
1Tomasz Charubin, 2Roman Szewczyk
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,
Abstract: The Matteucci Effect (ME) is one of the magnetomechanical effects, like magnetostriction, magnetoelasticity, etc. The main result of this effect is a change in circular magnetization of the sample under the influence of applied variable axial magnetic field. In the case of wire samples, the ME manifests itself as induced sharp voltage spikes at the ends of the sample. Environmental conditions, such as temperature, often change some of the magnetic parameters of materials, such as coercivity. The influence of temperature change could have significant impact on the operation of devices which utilize ME sensors. The ME voltage spikes response in amorphous Fe-based wires in the function of temperature was investigated in this paper. ME is known for decades, yet still is underdeveloped from the application point of view.

Dynamic NDT sorting of ferromagnetic components based on fast magnetic signature measurement
1Piotr Gazda, 1Marcin Czuwara, 1Michał Nowicki, 2Roman Szewczyk
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,
Abstract: The following paper presents the idea of distinguishing ferromagnetic ob-jects based on their magnetic signature. This method is based on the meas-urement of the magnetic moment of the samples. The developed method could be attractive to the industry due to its simplicity, scalability and low implementation costs. The paper presents detailed description of the measur-ing station and measurement procedure. Tests of the proposed solution con-firmed the correctness of the operation and indicated further directions of the method development.

DC Magnetic Field Sensor Based on Matteucci Effect
1Tomasz Charubin, 1Michał Nowicki, 2Roman Szewczyk
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,
Abstract: In this paper a measurement device for measuring DC axial magnetic field is described. The device uses Matteucci Effect in its working principle. There are three main components of this extremely simple sensor – magnetic amorphous nanowire, driving coil and timer-counter. The output signal is time-based, as the time between negative and positive ME voltage peaks changes proportionally to applied DC magnetic field, when the core is magnetized by known larger AC magnetic field. The obtained characteristic is almost linear, which makes the ME magnetic field sensor signal suitable for further processing. Moreover, time-based output allows for high resolution and direct digitalization of the measurement results.

Digitally switched voltage controlled current sources for application in hysteresisgraph of low magnetizing fields
1Maciej Kachniarz, 2Kinga Kołakowska
1Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 2Politechnika Warszawska,
Abstract: The paper presents the design and construction of the digitally switched system of the voltage controlled bipolar current sources. The developed current sources are modified version of the classic Howland current pump adjusted to produce sinusoidal current waveform of amplitude 1÷10 mA and 10÷100 mA. The voltage input and current output are switched between developed current sources with the digital 2-channel switch controlled with LPC1115 microcontroller. The developed device can be applied in the hysteresisgraph for investigation of soft ferromagnetic materials in low magnetizing fields region known as the Rayleigh region. The SPICE simulations and results obtained with the developed device indicate that it works correctly and allows to investigate even very soft ferromagnetic amorphous alloys in low magnetizing fields.

Determination of Initial Parameters for Inverse Tomography Transformation in Eddy Current Tomography
Paweł Nowak, Roman Szewczyk
Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,
Abstract: The paper presents approach for determination of initial values of optimized parameters for inverse tomography transformation in eddy current tomography. Inverse tomography transformation is optimization procedure where objective function is residual sum of square errors between measurement results and results of forward tomography transformation for optimized model. Current approach is based on optimization of tested objects cross section, which is described by 4 parameters – radius, defect width, depth and angular position. Paper focuses on determining initial values of radius and defects’ angular position. FEM-based forward tomography transformations were conducted for spindle with changing radius, as well as for spindle with different angular position of defect. Obtained results confirmed possibility of determination of those parameters, basing on amplitude measurements (for angular position of defect) and phase shift measurements (for objects radius).

Fem-Based Forward Eddy Current Tomography Transformation For Automotive Industry
1Paweł Nowak, 2Michal Nowicki, 1Roman Szewczyk
1Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 2Politechnika Warszawska,,
Abstract: The paper presents utilization of open-source finite element method (FEM) software for modelling of measurement process on eddy current tomography setup. Methodology of measurements is presented, as well as software for forward tomography transformation. Developed software was based entirely on the open-source programs, which results in a high possibility of the methods implementation in industry. Obtained modelling results present high compatibility with the measurement results, which confirms correctness of the proposed method and may be utilized for developing algorithms for inverse tomography transformation.

Azimuth Angle Estimation of Ultrasonic Signal Arrival by Using Multi-Pair Receiver System
Bogdan Kreczmer
Politechnika Wrocławska
Abstract: The paper presents a method which makes it possible to determine in air the azimuth of ultrasonic echo arrival using popular piezoelectric ultrasonic receivers. Experimental data made it possible to show that the accuracy is better than 1 degree in the range about 60 degrees. This feature allowed the measurement data interpretation to be radically improved.

Estimation of measurand parameters for data from asymmetric distributions by polynomial maximization method
1Zygmunt Warsza, 2Serhii Zabolotnii
1Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 2Cherkasy State Technological University, Ukraine,
Abstract: In this paper the non-standard method for evaluating of the average non-Gaussian-distributed asymmetrically sampling with a priori partial description (unknown PDF) is propose. This method of statistical estimation is based on the apparatus of stochastic polynomials and uses the higher-order statistics (moment description) of random variables. The analytical expressions for finding estimates and analyze their accuracy to the degree of the polynomial s = 2. It is shown that the uncertainty estimates for received polynomial is generally less than the uncertainty estimates obtained based on the mean (arithmetic average as recomended by GUM). Reducing the uncertainty of measurement depends on the skewness and kurtosis. On the basis of the Monte Carlo method carried out statistical modelling, the results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Polynomial estimation of linear regression parameters for the asymmetric pdf of errors
1Zygmunt Warsza, 2Serhii Zabolotnii, 3Oleksandr Tkachenko
1Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 2Cherkasy State Technological University, Ukraine, 3Cherkasy State Business-College, Ukraine,,
Abstract: The paper suggested a non-standard way of finding estimates of simple linear regression parameters for the case of asymmetrically distributed errors. This approach is based on the polynomial maximization method and uses the moment & cumulant description of random variables. Analytic expressions are obtained that allow one to find estimates and analyze their accuracy for the degree of the polynomial S=1 and S=2. It is shown that the variance of polynomial estimates (for S=2) in the general case is less than the variance of estimates of the ordinary least squares method, which is a particular case of the polynomial maximization method (for S=1). The increase in accuracy depends on the values of cumulant coefficients of higher orders of random errors of regression. Statistical modeling (Monte Carlo & bootstrapping method) is performed, the results of which confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Modelling of Ultracapacitors using Recurrent Artificial Neural Network
Adrian Chmielewski, Jakub Możaryn, Piotr Piórkowski, Robert Gumiński, Krzysztof Bogdziński
Politechnika Warszawska,,,,
Abstract: This article presents an artificial neural network (ANN) model of the ultraca-pacitors based on experimental data acquired from laboratorypurposely built test stand for dynamic load cycle tests. Because of a nonlinear description of discharging dynamics in subsequent cycles and a coupling of the terminal voltage and temperatures of a ultracapacitor, the recurrent artificial neural network structure (R-ANN) structure is proposed. As a result, it was present-ed the accuracy analysis based on the statistical quality indices of proposed modeling approach.

Key factors influencing the accuracy of harmonic gears for space applications
1Philippe Preumont, 2Roman Szewczyk
1Firma PIAP Space, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,
Abstract: Depending on mission specificities, many different types of gears were used in space applications, it is a critical element. The one that will be analysed in this pa-per is the harmonic gear. It could be considered as the best combination in terms of reduction ratio, weight to torque ratio and backlash. Actually it is also one of the most used in aerospace for the same reasons. The preliminary qualitative ana-lyse presented will focus on accuracy of harmonic gear and the elements that im-pact it.

Implementation of computational intelligence methods for CNC machine spindle imbalance prediction
Grzegorz Piecuch, Tomasz Żabiński
Politechnika Rzeszowska,
Abstract: In the paper, a mechanical imbalance prediction problem for low power CNC machine spindle with the use of Computational Intelligence methods was studied. Four imbalance levels were examined and five classification methods, i.e. Naive Bayes, k-NN, SVM, SDT, MLP were tested. Offline as well as real-time classification experiments were conducted on a laboratory testbed. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and the area under ROC curve were computed in order to evaluate performance of the algorithms.

Inspection of Crane Rails with use of Monorail Mobile Platform
Piotr Czajka, Piotr Garbacz, Tomasz Giesko, Adam Mazurkiewicz, Jordan Mężyk, Wojciech Mizak
Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji – Państwowy Instytut Badawczy,,,,,
Abstract: Ensuring adequate technical and operational safety of the crane requires, among others, periodic track survey. The inspection of the crane track is to detect defects in the shape of the rail head resulting from plastic deformation and the surface wear as well as cracks in the structure of the rail. An important issue is the possibility of recording and archiving the results of periodic measurements in order to assess the wear of the rails during operation. The developed inspection system enables the determination of the rail profile using the laser scanning method, as well as the assessment of the condition of the rail head surface on the basis of the image recorded by the vision system. The stand-alone inspection system was installed on a mobile platform that traverses the rail. The article presents the developed inspection system and the results of the experimental tests.

Thermolysis parameters measurements of Tetra Pak waste packages in high temperatures
Jakub Szałatkiewicz
Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP
Abstract: This article presents investigation of thermolysis called commonly as pyrolysis, of Tetra Pak waste packages containing paperboard, LDPE and aluminium. Thermolysis of Tetra Pak waste allows recovery of energy and range of resources including: aluminium, coke, and other chemical substances in form of liquids, waxes, and flammable gases. The work is focused on measurement and calculations of: effect of heating rate on the process, effect of target temperature on process duration, yields of products at each target temperature, and energy demand. Experiments were carried out on real used printed Tetra Pak waste packages. Thermolysis was applied without carrier gas in airtight sealed crucible, with absence of oxygen, in high temperatures: 600oC, 700oC, 800oC. Collected data indicates that heating rate and target temperature does not affect yields of products. The process consumes small amount of heat, less than 600 MJ/Mg of waste, and does not require waste preparation.

Detection of GNSS Jamming Incidence
Konrad Bożek, Arkadiusz Perski, Artur Wieczyński, Maria Baczyńska-Wilkowska
Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,
Abstract: The paper presents a system for detection and registration of GNSS jamming in-cidences. The system was developed on the basis of the software receiver (SDR) Ettus B200. The article presents also results of performed tests in real conditions.

Design and construction of microforce sensor calibrator
1Piotr Gazda, 1Wojciech Gromelski, 1Michał Nowicki, 2Maciej Kachniarz
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,
Abstract: The paper presents a device for calibrating microforce sensors. The principle of operation of the calibrator is based on the reversed principle of operation of the current balance – the ampere standard. The design of the de-vice is described in detail. During the implementation of the project, minor corrections were made in project, what has been described. The final stage was to perform the calibration of the device with an analytical balance. Additionally, the experimental microforce sensor tests confirmed the correct-ness of the device operation.