September 23-24, 2021 – Łukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP).
3 keynote talks and 47 regular papers in 3 topic sessions.
Titles and abstracts of the papers ordered by topic session are presented below.

Microrobotic applications: sensor data fusion for the robot positioning
Vytautas Bučinskas
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University
Abstract: Recent development of robotic systems grows into micrometric world. Manipulation of biological material like cells, organic and non-organic particles and their combination became actual. From other hand, exist vast amount of equipment, able to operate in the area of micro world, but in all these cases pitch of the drive and actuators became big in comparison with object size. This creates specific robotic issues and problems, different from macroscopic world robotic. Positioning of microrobots requires accurate sensors, implementing of only optical view based control raises importance of the landscape with shape and color of object. Another possibility in the positioning there is an implementation multiply sensor and their data fusion, allowing bypassing optical method limitation. Presented methods of layer of data fusion, including different domain data, give understanding and state-of-art in the field of robot positioning in the microrobotic area. Finally, prospective and challenges of the area presented.

Robotics in a historical perspective
Teresa Zielińska
Warsaw University of Technology
Abstract: Industrial robotics was born at the beginning of the second half of the 20th century, but the roots of robotics should be sought much earlier. In the presentation, we will refer to historical facts illustrating the development of the idea of mechanical devices performing useful activities, including devices imitating animals or humans with their appearance. Through the ages, starting with antiquity, we will move on to the present. We will summarize the current state of development of robotics and contemporary research trends. Selected research trends in robotics will be briefly illustrated with examples of our own research. In the final part, we will present robotics development forecasts referring to the scientific research prorities of selected countries. The time prespecive will allow us to follow the historical transformations of various concepts and the role of the enriching engineering knowledge and technology in their improvement. It will be possible to notice historical continuation in developing certain ideas that are embodied in advanced robotic solutions.

Control systems for device noise reduction
Marek Pawełczyk
Silesian University of Technology
Abstract: Acoustic noise is one of the most severe side effects accompanying rapid development of industry and transport, and equipping residential spaces with different sorts of industrial or household devices. In many cases passive isolation of noise sources in unfeasible or ineffective, especially for low frequencies. Rapid development of technology including microelectronics, and signal processing methods opens a new possibility to reduce the noise. In active noise control additional secondary sound sources are used to cancel noise from the original primary source. One of the physical justification is given by Young’s interference principle, i.e. interference of two out-of-phase sounds of equal amplitudes results in their mutual cancellation. The secondary source can also change the radiation acoustic impedance of the primary source, the primary noise can be absorbed by the secondary source, or for a confined space the primary noise can be reflected by the secondary source. An original active casing method has been recently developed. The idea is to use the device’s own casing or enclose the device in another thin-walled casing and excite the walls to vibrate in such a way that the noise is blocked inside. Such approach, when properly implemented allows for global noise reduction in the entire enclosure around the noisy source. Another challenging problem is to reduce the noise in large spaces, e.g. industrial halls. This is a sophisticated environment, usually of many sources, with a number of users moving around. To effectively reduce the noise a system of time-varying structure should be used. These and many other problems will be discussed during the lecture, demonstrating challenges and possibilities, structures and algorithms.

New sufficient conditions of global stability of nonlinear positive electrical circuits
Tadeusz Kaczorek
Bialystok University of Technology
Abstract: The global stability of electrical circuits composed of positive linear parts and nonlinear static element with given characteristic and positive gain feedbacks is investigated. New sufficient conditions for the global stability of this class of nonlinear positive electrical circuits are established. The effectiveness of these new stability conditions are demonstrated on simples examples of positive nonlinear electrical circuits.

A Discrete, Fractional Order, Memory-Eective State Space Model of a RLC Circuit
Krzysztof Oprzędkiewicz
Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im S Staszica w Krakowie
Abstract: The paper presents a new, discrete, memory-eective state-space model of fractional RLC network. For the presented model its stability, positiv- ity and reaction to dierent inital functions are analysed. Results are illustrated by simulations.

Fractional order vs integer order transfer function models of a pendulum.
Krzysztof Oprzędkiewicz, Maciej Rosół, Jakub Żegleń
Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im S Staszica w Krakowie,,
Abstract: The paper presents the comparison of fractional order to integer order transfer function models of physical pendulum. The considered transfer functions describe the behaviour of the system around the lower, stable equilibrium point. Fractional order models are built using ORA approx- imation. Models were veried using real experimental data. Results of tests show that the fractional order transfer function can correctly de- scribe the physical pendulum. Integer order models are a little bit more accurate, but they require more parameters to identify.

Biologically inspired Neural behavioral control of the wheeled mobile robot
Paweł Penar, Zenon Hendzel
Rzeszów University of Technology,
Abstract: In this paper, to solve the task of neural behavioral control of a 2-wheeled mobile robot (WMR), a hierarchical structure is used. At higher levels of the hierarchic generate a desired trajectory of mobile robot motion based on the artificial potential field theory. The generated trajectory is a desired trajectory realized by the neural control algorithm, implemented on the lower level of the hierarchy. Correctness of the solution of the desired trajectory generator and the control system of the elementary robot behavior has been confirmed in numerical simulations.

Ordered–fuzzy-numbers-driven approach to out-plant milk-run dynamic routing and scheduling
1Grzegorz Bocewicz, 2Peter Nielsen, 1Zbigniew Banaszak
1Koszalin University of Technology, 2Aalborg University,,
Abstract: We consider a dynamic vehicle routing problem in which a fleet of service vehi-cles pay preventive maintenance visits to a set of spatially distributed customers over a given time horizon. Each vehicle follows a pre-planned separate route which links points defined by customer location and service periods. Customer orders and the feasible time windows for the execution of those orders are dy-namically revealed over time. The objective is to maximize the number of new ur-gent requests, which are inserted dynamically throughout the assumed time hori-zon, but not at the expense of the already accepted orders. The question that must be considered is whether the newly reported service request and the correction of the fulfillment date of the already submitted request can be accepted or not. Prob-lems of this type arise, for example, in systems in which preventive or corrective maintenance requests are scheduled to follow periodically performed inspections or repairs. The problem under consideration is formulated as a constraint satisfac-tion problem using the ordered fuzzy number formalism, which allows to handle the fuzzy nature of the variables involved through an algebraic approach. The computational results show that the proposed solution outperforms the commonly used computer simulation methods.

Arkadiusz Bożko, Leszek Ambroziak, Ewa Pawłuszewicz
Białystok University of Technology,,
Abstract: The idea of adapting genetic algorithms for tuning of the formation flight multi stage control system parameters is presented. The results were conducted on the simulation model with the switching control of the leader-follower. The different configurations of the parameters selection were tested. The fitness function based on position error and with non constant coefficient parameters was introduced. The obtained results were compared with those of the classically tuned system.

Application of the reference sliding variable profile as an extension of the time-varying sliding surface QSM control
Katarzyna Adamiak
Łódź University of Technology
Abstract: For the last decades the sliding mode control has been considered as one of the most promising continuous-time control methods. The idea assumes switching the structure of the controller, so that the representative point of the system approaches and remains on a predesigned sliding surface. Consequently, in the sliding phase the system becomes insensitive to any external disturbances and model uncertainties. To benefit from these features in the reaching phase as well, time-varying sliding surfaces may be applied. Unique properties of the sliding mode control, have also been widely adapted for discretized systems. However, as in the discrete-time only the quasi-sliding mode exists, the time-varying sliding surfaces have not been popularized for this case. For the quasi-sliding mode design, the reaching law approach has gathered more followers. This paper combines those two control design methods and presents the application of the reference sliding variable profile as an extension of the time-varying sliding surface idea for discrete-time sliding mode control. The study proves, that the application of the time-varying sliding surface guarantees robustness to external disturbances and modelling uncertainties through the whole regulation process.

Sliding Mode Control with Minimization of ITAE and the Input Signal Limitation
Mateusz Pietrala
Lodz University of Technology
Abstract: In this paper a second order, continuous-time system perturbed by external disturbances is presented. The robustness for the whole control process is achieved by applying a time-varying switching line. Moreover, a finite time convergence of the representative point to the demand state is ensured by selecting a nonlinear sliding curve. An absolute value of the control signal is limited from above by a positive parameter. ITAE quality index is applied in order to evaluate the dynamical performance of the system.

Advantages of using a reference model of the plant in discrete-time sliding mode control
Paweł Latosiński
Lodz University of Technology
Abstract: Reaching law based discrete-time sliding mode control strategies are an efficient way of ensuring good robustness of the system with respect to uncertainties. However, since such strategies rely on a recursive formula of the system state, their performance can be gradually deteriorated by the eect of disturbance in each discrete step. This can negatively affect the length of the reaching phase, as well as increase the quasi-sliding mode band width in the sliding phase. In order to remedy this issue, we propose the use of a model reference strategy. In each step, this strategy drives the representative point of the plant to a specific reference point obtained from the model. As a result, residual effect of past uncertainties on sliding motion of the system is eliminated. Furthermore, model reference approach allows one to bypass the assumption about matching conditions, which is otherwise necessary in many cases.

The comparison of IAE optimal time-varying sliding modes for second order systems
Filip Szewczyk, Katarzyna Adamiak
Institute of Automatic Control, Lodz University of Technology,
Abstract: This study presents a comparison of three different sliding mode control strategies for continuous time disturbed systems. Each of the analyzed control methods provides stability and robustness of the considered system from the very beginning of the regulation process by elimination of the reaching phase. This is achieved with application of time-variant switching lines, which cross the system’s state at the initial time and then move in the state space until they reach the desired state. Moreover, the switching planes are designed in order to minimize the IAE and provide monotonical convergence of error vector to zero.

State and Control Signal Limitations in Discrete Time Sliding Mode Control with Time Varying System’s Uncertainties
1Marek Jaskuła, 2Piotr Leśniewski
1Lódź University of Technology, 2Politechnika Łódzka,
Abstract: This paper studies the problem of bounding the control signal, state variables and state variables variations in the discrete time sliding mode control approach with external disturbances and time varying system’s uncertainties. Presented results provide sufficient conditions for the fastest, monotonic, finite time convergence of the representative point to the predefined switching hyperplane, at the same time preserving the mentioned limitations. These conditions have the linear forms, therefore they can be easily verified, using the linear optimization methods. The results extend our previous research on this issue. The comparison is depicted in the simulation example.

Extraction of information from a PSD for the control of vehicle suspension
Tadas Lenkutis, Aurimas Čerškus, Nikita Edgar Sitiajev, Kęstutis Dumbrava, Ieva Staugaitė, Nikolaj Šešok, Andrius Dzedzickis, Vytautas Bucinskas
Vilnius Tech,,,,,,,
Abstract: Road irregularities are the main effect influencing driving quality, due to its unpredictability driver can not find the best driving parameters so easy and fast. Identification of road profile lets us control the damping characteristics of the vehicle and increase driving quality as fast as possible. Power Spectral Density (PSD) could be easily found from the road profile. Deduction of road waviness and amplitudes from PSD could be used to provide the man-datory information required for controllable damping system. Using our de-veloped dynamic model of the car, we performed a simulation of the vehicle passing artificially generated road profiles with different waviness. Obtained results show that straight-line approximation of PSD of the road profile as recommend by ISO standard doesn’t provide suitable information required for the control of car suspension. We define that, two split approximations of PSD spectra is a better solution for this purpose. It provides reliable results and allows to choose optimal damping coefficient value with a small delay for long distance.

Robust Follow-up Sequencing Algorithm
1Sara Bysko, 2Szymon Bysko, 1Jolanta Krystek, 3Łukasz Glodek
1Silesian University of Technology, 2ProPoint Sp. z o.o. Sp. K., 3ProPoint Sp. z o.o. Sp. K,,,
Abstract: The paper presents the continuation of work carried out over the last few years on development of an effective algorithm for sequencing cars in the paint shop. One of the proposed algorithms is based on the follow-up production control algorithm. The article focuses in particular on the verification of the impact of selected parameters, both production and technological, on the effectiveness of the considered sequencing algorithm. The following parameters were used as part of the research: periodic cleaning period value affecting the quality of the sequencing process, length of the production plan, which is taken into account when determining the priorities of individual body colors by the sequencing algorithm, and distribution of car colors. The aim of the conducted research was to determine whether this algorithm is resistant to the change of the examined parameters. Such research is important from the point of view of possibility of applying following algorithm in a real factory.

1Łukasz Glodek, 1Szymon Bysko, 2Witold Nocoń
1Propoint, 2Silesian University of Technology,,
Abstract: This paper proposes a model quality assessment method based on Support Vector Machine (SVM), which can be used to develop a digital twin. This work is strongly connected with Industry 4.0, in which the main idea is to integrate machines, devices, systems, and IT. One of the goals of Industry 4.0 is to introduce flexible assortment changes. Virtual commissioning can be used to create a simulation model of a plant or conduct training for maintenance engineers. Ona branch of virtual commissioning is a digital twin. The digital twin is a virtual representation of a plant or a device. Thanks to the digital twin, different scenarios can be analyzed to make the testing process less complicated and less time-consuming. The goal of this work is to propose a coefficient that will take into account expert knowledge and methods used for model quality assessment (such as Normalized Root Mean Square Error – NRMSE, Maximum Error – ME). NRMSE and ME methods are commonly used for this purpose, but they have not been used simultaneously so far. Each of them takes into consideration another aspect of a model. The coefficient allows deciding whether the model can be used for digital twin appliances. Such an attitude introduces the ability to test models automatically or in a semi-automatic way.

A prototype of an advanced ship autopilot implemented in the CPDev environment
Zbigniew Świder
Rzeszow University of Technology
Abstract: Ship autopilots can be divided into conventional, only capable of maintaining a given course, and advanced, which can additionally follow a “track” connecting the given navigation points along the ship’s route. The article presents the structure of the prototype autopilot of the ship implemented in the CPDev environment and the formulas allowing to determine the settings of the course controller (PID) and track controller (PI) in the cascade control. For each of them, individual design parameters were adopted to define the dynamics of the closed control loop. These rules were applied in the software of the autopilot prototype, created in cooperation with a Dutch company designing control and visualization systems for ships.

Traffic monitoring using cloud computing and RFID technology
1Bartosz Pawłowicz, 1Mateusz Salach, 2Bartosz Trybus, 2Konrad Żak
1Rzeszow University of Technology, 2Rzeszów University of Technology,,,
Abstract: The article presents the architecture and implementation of a street traffic monitoring system. It uses RFID identifiers to recog-nize vehicles, including special meaning, such as ambulances, city buses, vehicles with reduced exhaust gas emissions. Traffic data is sent to the IoT Hub service in the Azure cloud. On their basis, road situations are analyzed and decisions are made regarding traffic control. Control information is fed back to traffic control devices by means of street lights, barriers, information boards. The article describes the method of communication with the computing cloud and the possibilities of implementing traffic monitoring and control algorithms using IoT Hub.

The performance of executing intermediate code for control systems using STM32 architecture
Marcin Hubacz, Bartosz Trybus, Jan Sadolewski
Rzeszów University of Technology,,
Abstract: The article presents performance tests of code executed by STM32 microcontrollers using a virtual machine (so-called inter-mediate code) dedicated to control systems. The ARM architec-ture used in these chips has limitations related to access to non-aligned addresses. Three ways to overcome these limitations have been proposed, and each has been subjected to a suite of tests to determine their performance. Tests were conducted for two operating modes, i.e. with 16- and 32-bit addressing for different generations of chips. The test results allow to choose the right solution for a specific platform.

The use of multilayer ConvNets for the purposes of motor imagery classification
1Szczepan Paszkiel, 2Dobrakowski Paweł
1Opole University of Technology, 2Humanitas University,
Abstract: An electroencephalographic signal is characterized by high complexity and character, which changes dynamically over time. At the same time, it should be noted that EEG signals in the field of Motor Imagery are increasingly more often used by scientists, among others, to help people with disabilities. Decoding these signals is important from the perspective of modern solutions based on the brain-computer interface technology. It is possible to isolate both spatial, as well as temporal features from an EEG signal using a ConvNet. This research paper suggests combining numerous ConvNet – Convolutional Neural Network models in terms of the EEG signal. The suggested multilayer ConvNets indicate high performance coefficients on a test data set. The method advocated in this article achieves a degree of accuracy on a data set at a precision level of 74.5%.

Modeling of systems of automated auxiliary processes in pharmaceutical industry
1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Nataliia Shybetska, 3Vladyslav Shybetskyi, 3Sergii Kostyk
1Łukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP, 2Joint Stock Company «Farmak», 3National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”,,,
Abstract: The computer model of the device with the CIP (clean in place) system al-lows at the design stage to reduce the cost of implementation and commis-sioning. A computer model of the bioreactor washing process using the CIP system was built. Using the ANSYS finite element analysis system, dia-grams of the distribution of fluid flows for different supply systems are con-structed. The influence of the design of the spray device on the quality of the washing process of the bioreactor is analyzed.

Analysis of the 3D object reconstruction accuracy in an Mi-17 Mixed Reality simulator
Piotr Golański, Marek Szczekala, Michał Roguszewski
Instytut Techniczny Wojsk Lotniczych,,
Abstract: The article is devoted to the interaction of a human with mixed reality systems. Mixed Reality (MR) allows for the integration of real world with a virtual world – real objects with computer-generated objects. A human who interacts with such a system receives both visual and tactile sensations. Thus, high reconstruction analysis of virtual objects and the corresponding real objects is necessary to ensure proper interaction of a human with this type of systems. The article aims to illustrate the results of the accuracy analysis of reconstructing flight controls into their virtual 3D models in a prototype of Mi-17 helicopter made in MR technology.

Robustness analysis of a distributed MPC control system of a turbo-generator set of a nuclear plant disturbance issues
1Paweł Sokólski, 2Tomasz Adam Rutkowski, 3Bartosz Ceran, 1Dariusz Horla
1Poznan University of Technology, 2Gdansk University of Technology, 3Poznań University of Technology,,,
Abstract: Typically, there are two main control loops with PI controllers operating at each turbo-generator set. In this paper, a distributed model predictive controller with local quadratic model predictive controllers for the turbine generator is proposed instead of a set of classical PID controllers. The local quadratic predictive controllers utilize stepresponse models for the controlled system components. The parameters of these models are determined based on the proposed black-box models of the turbine and synchronous generator, which parameters are identified on-line with the recursive least-squares algorithm. A robustness analysis of the control system with respect to dierent disturbances is presented in the paper. There are various configurations considered, such as change in disturbance levels from the side of electrical and thermal systems, or changes in prediction horizons.

Mariusz Krawczyk, Albert Zajdel, Cezary Szczepański
Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation,,
Abstract: The main goal of the research presented in this paper is testing the possibility of introducing the automatic trimming system for the aeroplane flight stabilisation purpose. If successful, it can perform the stabilisation and even automatic control of the aeroplane flight, in the certain flight stages. Model-based attitude towards the automatic control system design has been adopted. Initial models of the aeroplane, flight control system with the control laws and models of servomechanisms have been developed and tested in the Matlab – Simulink environment. Preliminary designed flight stabilisation system elements have been validated at the HIL testing stand in the two modes: simulation and HIL. Performed research has shown that flight stabilisation system based on the trimming tabs deflection is capable of automatic control of the aeroplane flight even in scenarios typical for autopilots. Proposed stabilisation system assures the safety flight conditions with the use of limits imposed by the control software. Results presented in the paper are original ones achieved during the research project . The next stage of the project will be the stabilisation system validation during the flight tests.

Preliminary prototype of a 4-unit Arm-Z hyper-redundant modular manipulator
1Ela Zawidzka, 2Wojciech Kinski, 1Zawidzki Machi
1Institute of Fundamental Technological Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 2Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP,,
Abstract: Arm-Z is a concept of a robotic manipulator comprised of linearly joined congruent modules with possibility of relative twist. The advantages of Arm-Z are: economization (mass-production) and robustness (modules which failed can be replaced, also if some fail the system can perform certain tasks). Non-intuitive and difficult control are the disadvantages of Arm-Z. It has been introduced over six years ago. The theretofore research focused on the control of the virtual Arm-Z manipulator through the relative twists of its constituent units. This paper documents the fabrication and testing of the preliminary physical prototype of a simple Arm-Z, which has been built using relatively low-tech approach. The modules have been assembled from 3D-printed elements using PET-G filament. Each module is equipped with a transmission mechanism allowing to pre-set the spin of its twist (either positive/right or negative/left). Although the presented system is very simple it demonstrates certain meaningful kinematic actions and sets clear paths for the future research in the area of Extremely Modular Systems.

Application of safety systems based on laser scanners for installations with automatically relocatable industrial robots
Piotr Falkowski, Michał Smater, Jakub Koper
ŁUKASIEWICZ Research Network – Industrial Research Institute of Automation and Measure-ments PIAP,,
Abstract: The fourth industrial revolution brought a concept of interchangeability in manu-facturing. Thanks to the diversity of sensors applied in the production lines, ma-nipulators may perform their tasks at various workstations. Their relocation may be solved with the application of automated mobile robots. However, this gener-ates a problem of preventing workers in the factories from potential harm caused by machines. Furthermore, traditional safety systems are not effective, as they re-strict too much area form human access. Hence, a flexible method of creating safety system based on laser scanners is considered. The following paper is based on a real case study. Even though a used setup is dedicated to training in automotive, the results of simulations and analysis are scalable and applicable to the factories of the future. The paper compares traditional and non-conventional approaches towards creating safety systems, presents capabilities of the ones based on laser scanners and assesses possibilities of their practical application in different sectors of industry.

Benchmark and analysis of path planning algorithms of “ROS MoveIt!” for pick and place task in tomato harvesting
Filip Jędrzejczyk, Jarosław Bajer, Agnieszka Sprońska, Grzegorz Gawdzik, Jakub Główka
Sieć Badawcza Łukasiewicz – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,,
Abstract: This article describes a benchmark of motion planners available in ROS MoveIt!. The benchmark exercise has been done with planners’ configured to be optimal for a planning scene imitating conditions in a greenhouse during the real process of picking a tomato with a robotic arm. It provides an overview of the available motion planners, analysis of benchmark results and further validation of the most suitable planners with the use of a real 6 DOF robotic arm. Presented experimental results include time of planning, time of generated plan simplification, time of plan execution and time of processing in a cycle composed of start-goal-start poses movement. Obtained results allow to compare efficiency, repeatability and usefulness of particular planners in a use case of robotic tomato harvesting or in similar pick and place tasks.

A Mathematical Model for Levelling Algorithm With Respect to a Predefined Axis Location
1Rafał Kordaczek, 2Andrzej Tutaj
1Research and Development Center of Technology for Industry inc., 2AGH Universtiy of Science and Technology,
Abstract: The paper presents derivation and evaluation of an algorithm for levelling a mobile robot platform that uses linear actuators for compensating initially measured tilt angles. The developed levelling procedure maintains the location of a predefined axis of rotation with respect to the ground. A simplified mechanical diagram of such a platform is proposed and a mathematical model of the process is derived. By assuming, that position of each actuator is controllable with high accuracy, a calculated set of new displacement setpoints can be applied to compensate for certain tilt angles. If the position of a predefined axis of rotation has to be maintained during levelling, up to 4 additional actuators moving the platform horizontally are required as well. Depending on the demanded levelling and positioning precision, the mechanical design can be refined by employing high positioning accuracy actuators or low play and high stiffness linear guides.

Multi-stream Fusion in Image Sets Comparison
Paweł Piwowarski, Włodzimierz Kasprzak
Warsaw University of Technology,
Abstract: A unique problem is considered: how automatically to deter- mine whether two sets of RGB images show the same 3D object, although different views of this object can appear. In our research we could not nd any related work on this problem. Thus, a novel proposition for solv- ing this task is proposed. In this complex solution image sets are being compared and following question is answered are these sets similar in the sense that they present an object of the same type in all images of both image set? The approach uses CCN-like neural networks for specific feature extraction and proper type detection, and cross-correlation measures for decision making. Experimental validation of proposed approach is performed on a public car image database.

Robotic swarm shape control based on virtual viscoelastic chain
Jakub Wiech, Zenon Hendzel
Rzeszow University of Technology,
Abstract: We present a physicomimetic method for self-organization and swarm shape control of nonholonomic robotic swarm, based on length controlled spring damper chain. The article starts with explanation of two wheel robot dynamics and relation between virtual forces allowing for robot control and swarm formation of a desired convex shape. Two methods of swarm control are analyzed. In the first case the swarm shape is achieved by virtual spring damper chain with analytically defined length of springs in rest. In the second case a numerical method is introduced allowing for forming any closed convex shape converted form picture to point cloud. The paper ends with numeric simulations for performance evaluation of proposed control method.

Robust Tracking Control of Omni-Mecanum Wheeled Robot
1Zenon Hendzel, 2Maciej Kołodziej
1Rzeszow University of Technology, 2Politechnika Rzeszowska,
Abstract: This paper presents an approach to the problem of controlling mechanical objects of unspecified description, considering variable operating conditions. The controlled object is a mobile robot with mecanum wheels. The control algorithm is based on the input-output linearization method and variable structure control approach. The major contribution of this paper lies in application of new approach to control wheeled robot along desired trajectory in the present parametric and non-parametric modeling inaccuracies. To solve the control task, taking into account compensation for nonlinearity and the object variable operating conditions, the Lyapunov stability theory is applied. Basin on numerical analysis, it has been demonstrated that the tested control algorithm is robust to assumed inaccuracies in modeling.

LiDAR localization and mapping for autonomous vehicles: recent solutions and trends
Piotr Skrzypczynski
Poznan University of Technology
Abstract: This paper presents a brief survey of the current achievements in LiDAR SLAM and discusses some recent trends and new ideas in this area. The focus is on LiDAR SLAM applied to autonomous vehicles, which still strugle with real-world complexity. We identify the challenges in efficient environment representation, robust estimation over large state spaces, and real-time handling of the scene dynamics and diversified semantics. Some of these issues are illustrated by preliminary results of our recent research in LiDAR SLAM.

Convolutional Neural Network-based Local Obstacle Avoidance for a Mobile Robot
Milena Molska, Dominik Belter
Poznan University of Technology,
Abstract: This paper presents collision avoidance and local motion planning modules for a mobile robot equipped with a depth camera. In this paper, we identify some limitations of the existing neural controller, and then we propose the extensions which improve the behavior of the robot. We show that the knowledge about control history is crucial to efficiently avoid collisions with the obstacles if the robot is equipped with a narrow field of view camera. We propose the architecture which utilizes CNN-based neural modules to plan the local motion of the robot. Finally, we provide the results of the experimental verification on the real robot.

Evaluation of Hand-eye calibration algorithms in application to robotic flexible manufacturing systems
1Jakub Chudziński, 1Dominik Belter, 2Filip Jarecki, 2Michał Spławski, 1Paweł Drapikowski, 1Piotr Kaczmarek
1Poznan University of Technology, 2A.S. Adrian Stern, Wilczak 45/47, 61-623 Poznan, Poland,,,,,
Abstract: The article is focused on two vital practical aspects related to robotic flexible manufacturing system which can be used for example in small craft factory to support the production of short series: the automatic visual system calibration with respect to the workspace and visual work-piece localization. The test procedure was performed in the system consisted of a collaborative robot UR-10, HD RGB camera and 8-cameras Optitrack motion capture system used as a reference. For calibration three hand-eye algorithms were investigated, where the best accuracy enabling to localize workspace coordinate system was achieved for dual-quaternions approach with the error below 0.4mm in each direction. The work-piece localization was performed by means of 40x40mm ArUco tag, the mean localization error was below 0.6mm in every dimension.

Estimation of the parameters of anhysteretic curve of isotropic and anisotropic magnetic materials on the base of initial anhysteretic permeability measurements
Roman Szewczyk
Łukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP
Abstract: Determination of parameters of anhysteretic magnetization curve plays the key role in modelling the characteristics of soft magnetic materials. This curve can be efficiently used to describe the characteristics of inductive components in SPICE or FEM modelling. Moreover, anhysteretic magnetization curve is the base of Jiles-Atherton model of magnetic hysteresis loop. Paper presents the method of identification of parameters of anhysteretic curves of soft magnetic materials without or with different types of anisotropy. Due to the fact, that calculation of anhysteretic curve of anisotropic materials requires numerical integration, optimization-based method is proposed. Moreover, open-source MATLAB/Octave scripts are provided to verify and validate proposed method for variety of anisotropic materials.

LTspice implementation of gyrator-capacitor magnetic circuit model considering losses and magnetic saturation for transient simulations of switching mode power supplies utilizing inductive elements with cores made of amorphous alloys
1Roman Szewczyk, 1Oleg Petruk, 2Michal Nowicki, 2Anna Ostaszewska-Liżewska, 3Aleksandra Kolano-Burian, 4Piotr Gazda, 4Adam Bienkowski, 1Pawel Nowak, 5Tomasz Charubin
1Łukasiewicz Reserch Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP, 2Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 3Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Nonferrous Metals, 4Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechatronics, 5Warsaw University of Technology,,,,,,,,
Abstract: Modelling the transient simulation of magnetic circuits is the crucial process for development of modern switching mode power converters. Such models are especially important for newly developed magnetic materials, such as amorphous alloys. Paper presents the gyrator-capacitor model of inductive element with core made of high permeability, Co-based amorphous alloy. Parameters of the model were identified during Nedler-Mead method based optimization process. Presented results of modelling confirm that model can be used for SPICE simulations; however, the accuracy of losses modeling is limited in the wide range of frequencies.

Volumetric estimation of non-structured heterogeneous waste
Adam Wołoszczuk, Mateusz Bielecki, Szymon Buś, Mateusz Maciaś, Jakub Główka, Michał Bryła
ŁUKASIEWICZ Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP,,,,,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel method for volumetric estimation of non-structured heterogeneous waste stored in the trash container of smart waste management application. First, AI-aided method of trash volume estimation based on millimeter wave radar data is presented. Subsequently, the conditions and configuration of experimental setup are described, with research methodology. Further on, insight into experiment outcome in terms of radar sensors and AI-based detector performance benchmarked against legacy sensors is discussed. The final part of the paper summarizes the conclusions of experiment and recommendations for expanding the research.

Jerzy Graffstein
Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation
Abstract: Successful avoidance of a mid air collision with moving obstacles depends on solutions of some most essential problems e.g.: quick detection of an obstacle, verification whether detected obstacle is a critical one and making right decision on evasive manoeuvre. This decision making process requires an appropriate identification of a threat’s nature, including whether detected obstacles should be treated as a one aggregated group. Aggregation of obstacles moving in short distance one to the other is a typical case. The paper addresses also the case of inclusion the obstacle to the group objects moving in longer distances one to the other. The algorithm used for deciding whether a moving obstacle should be added to (aggregated with) a given group has been presented. A method for computing its characteristic parameters has been presented too. Selected scenarios of avoiding the aggregated group of moving obstacles have been simulated and results obtained illustrates problems considered.

Resonance situation in the gyro suspension when changing the acoustic beam angle
1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Viktorij Mel’nick, 2Serhii Fesenko
1Łukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP, 2National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”,,
Abstract: An analysis of the features of the resonant type for both the computational models – the approximate model (which has the appearance of an elementary plate) and the refined model (which has the appearance of a shell of consid-erable length), revealed some discrepancies in the results. The results ob-tained have been confirmed in experimental modeling of shell behavior. The reasons for the discrepancy of the results are thoroughly considered, and the values of the most dangerous angles of incidence of sound rays in relation to the surface of the shell are calculated.

1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Viktorij Mel’nick, 2Volodimir Karachun, 2Vladislav Shybetskiy
1Warsaw University of Technology, 2National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”,,,
Abstract: The features of the disturbed motion of the gyroscope’s movable part are established and the most dangerous modes of oscillations leading to resonance manifestations in materials are determined. The numerical values of the elastic displacements of the materials of the gyroscope suspension frame, caused by the diffraction of sound waves of acoustic radiation, are established. Models for calculating the non-stationary elastic interaction of acoustic radiation penetrating into the instrument compartment of the head aerodynamic fairing of the rocket are proposed and tested. The occurrence danger degree of technological risks in the form of resonant manifestations is determined.

Quinones-Mediated Microbial Biofuel Cell based on Baker’s Yeast
1Juste Rozene, 2Katazyna Blazevic, 1Antanas Zinovicius, 1Vakare Guoba Sataite, 1Inga Morkvenaite-Vilkonciene
1Vilnius Gediminas technical university, 2Vilnius University,,,,
Abstract: The impact of the energy consumption increase on the environment is one big problem, and it makes alternative energy sources so significant. Biological fuel cells (BFCs) based on enzymes and microorganisms are devices capable to directly transform chemical to electrical energy via electrochemical reactions involving biochemical pathways microbial biofuel cells (MBFCs). The study shows the possibility to use yeast-based MBFCs as the microorganisms for the quinones caused toxicity. Quinones are a controversial substance that is very important to MBFCs electrons transfer process but can cause oxidative and replicative stress of the cell. This is why the main aim of our research was to improve charge transfer efficiency in Baker’s yeast-based MBFCs by immobilizing quinones menadione (MD), 9,10-phenantrenquinone (PQ), and MD/PQ on the anode surface. Metrohm μStat 400 Potentiostat/Galvanostat was used for the electrochemical measurements, which results are described in this paper.

Surface Properties of Polypyrrole-Modified Yeast Used in Microbial Fuel Cell
1Antanas Zinovičius, 2Justė Rožėnė, 2Jurga Subačiūtė-Žemaitienė, 2Karolina Lapkauskaitė, 2Aurimas Čerškus, 2Mykyta Kovalenko, 2Andrius Dzedzickis, 2Vytautas Bučinskas, 1Inga Morkvėnaitė-Vilkončienė
1Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2Vilnius Gediminas technical university,,,,,,,,
Abstract: Electrically conductive polymers can be used for the modification of living cells to increase charge transfer efficiency from the cell to the electrode in high-performance biosensors or biofuel cells. However, such modification causes shortened cell lifespan, burdens the replication process, and diminishes renewability in the long term. The main aim of this research is to assess the possibility to apply polypyrrole-modified cells in microbial fuel cell after evaluating potential changes in cell viability by measuring surface and morphological properties when cell is encapsulated in polypyrrole. To understand the electrically conductive polymer-induced damages to the living cells, yeast cells were modified with pyrrole, and cell surface properties, such as cell morphology and roughness, were evaluated. The results were compared to healthy and inactivated yeast cells. The cells displayed cell size reduction, incremental growth of roughness parameters and formation of small structural clusters of polymer on the cell with increasing pyrrole concentration used for modification. Substantially, modifications with low concentrations of polypyrrole do not cause severe alterations in surface properties of the cell; therefore, such practice can be implemented to improve the microbial biofuel cell.

Evaluation of motion characteristics using absolute sensors
Marius Sumanas, Andrius Dzedzickis, Vytautas Bučinkas, Algirdas Petronis, Tomas Januškevičius, Darius Urbonis, Igor Iljin, Simonas Stankaitis
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University,,,,,,,
Abstract: Definition of movement trajectories using absolute sensors is a challenging is-sue in various application fields due to the appearing additive errors. Most of-ten, for the trajectory definition used Inertial measurement units (IMU) con-sisting of accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers require for imple-mentation of sensor fusion algorithms and complex data processing. In this re-search, we investigated the possibility to use cheap 3-axis accelerometer for movement trajectory definition and reproduction. Six degrees of freedom in-dustrial articulated robot was used as a source of ideal trajectories. Obtained results show that using 3-axis accelerometer and relatively simple data pro-cessing; raw data mean value offset correction and double integration it is pos-sible to define 2D and 3D trajectories in respect of reference point. In our case, the maximum reproduction error did not exceed 21 mm for, 314 mm length 2D trajectory, and correspondingly 7 mm for the 3D trajectory of the same length. Also, we defined that reproduction errors are proportional to the length of tra-jectory in the separately taken axis.

Influence of Signal Interference on Determining Direction of Arrival by Using the Indirect Phase Determination Method
Bogdan Kreczmer
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology
Abstract: The paper describes the influence of the signal interference phenomenon on determining the azimuth angle of the signal arrival. This influence is especially important when a method based on measuring the phase shift is used. Such a method is applied in the sonar exploited in the presented research. To demonstrate the influence of the interference effect, a series of preliminary experiments are described and reported.

Uncertainty bands of the regression line for data with Type A and Type B uncertainties of dependent variable Y
1Zygmunt Lech Warsza, 2Jacek Puchalski
1ŁUKASIEWICZ Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP, 2Central Office of Measures – Główny Urząd Miar,
Abstract: regression method for the description of noncorrelated measured data of Y variable. Recommendations of the international Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) [1] are used. The impact of Type B measurement uncertainties is included, which is omitted in the statistical literature on the accuracy of regression method. The introduction presents the essence of the uncertainty calculations used in GUM. The case of random changes of variable Y and the criteria used in linear regression are discussed in detail. For known values of X variable, the parameters and uncertainty bands of regression line are determined for measurement of uncorrelated values of Y with Type A and Type B uncertainties. Considerations are illustrated with four numerical examples of the measurement points with the same coordinates, but different absolute and relative uncertainties.

Uncertainty bands of the regression line for autocorrelated data of dependent variable Y
1Zygmunt Lech Warsza, 2Jacek Puchalski
1ŁUKASIEWICZ Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP, 2Central Office of Measures,
Abstract: The formalism for assessing the accuracy of regression line is proposed, which takes into account both the correlation of the Y variable data and the impact of type B uncertainty in routine measurements.This is the continuation of authors’ work considering the data with Type B uncertainty and uncorrelated random errors. The essence, criteria and dependencies of the regression method were examined. Simulated examples of determining uncertainty bands of the regression line fitted to measured points with different cases of correlated values of dependent Y variable are considered. The recommendations of GUM Guide [1] was referred to and the Type B uncertainty not discussed yet in the literature was considered. The proposed formalism is illustrated by examples the precisely know abscissa and ordinates of measured points with different correlation, and absolute or relative uncertainties Type A and Type B

Measurement of qualitative characteristics of different types of wood waste in the forestries Zhytomyr Polissya
1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Iryna Davydova, 2Valentyn Korobiichuk, 2Volodymyr Shlapak, 2Andrii Panasiuk
1Łukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Meas-urements PIAP, 2Zhytomyr Polytechnic State University,,,,
Abstract: The paper analyzes the prospects of using forestry waste as a raw material for the production of fuel resources (pellets). For each type of wood raw material the main quality parameters were measured: humidity, ash content, volatile substunces content,The lower calorific value of the studied samples was cal-culated on the basis to the experimentally obtained data. The measurement results were compared with the requirements of European standards used in Ukraine. The studies have shown that sawdust from the dry lumber prepara-tion shop without pre-treatment and sawdust from sawmilling and wood-working after pre-drying can be used to make pellets that meet the Swedish quality standard SS 18 71 20.

Dose measurement of flocculants in water treatment of stone processing plants
1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Volodymyr Shamray, 2Valentyn Korobiichuk, 2Andrii Kryvoruchko, 2Sergii Iskov
1Łukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP, 2Zhytomyr Polytechnic State University,,,,
Abstract: In the publication, the concentration of chemical elements in samples of dirty and purified water from settling tanks of a stone processing enterprise was measured using the MP-AES device. The data obtained were compared with the standards of Ukraine and the EU. 180 samples of dirty water of 60 ml each were also taken to add flocculants. The sedimentation rate of stone sludge was measured as a function of the flocculant concentration in the so-lution with water and stone sludge. At each stage of the study, at flocculant concentrations of 0.25 g/l, 0.5 g/L, 1 g/L, 2 g/L, 3 g/l, we measured the time intervals during which the cut point between two phases passes the mark of 70 ml, 60 ml and 50 ml. The time for the cut point between the two phases to pass the marks on the flask was also recorded.

Application of the Polynomial Maximization Method for Estimation Parameters of Polynomial Regression with Non-Gaussian Residuals
1Serhii Zabolotnii, 1Oleksandr Tkachenko, 2Zygmunt Warsza
1Cherkasy State Business College, 2Łukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP,,
Abstract: This paper considers the application of the polynomial maximization method to find estimates of the parameters of polynomial regression. It is shown that this method can be effective for the case when the distribution of the random component of the regression models differs significantly from the Gaussian distribution. This approach is adaptive and is based on the analysis of higher-order statistics of regression residuals. Analytical expressions that allow finding estimates and analyzing their uncertainty are obtained. Cases of asymmetry and symmetry of the distribution of regression errors are considered. It is shown that the variance of estimates of the polynomial maximization method can be significantly less than the variance of the estimates of the least squares method, which is a special case. The increase in accuracy depends on the values of the cumulant coefficients of higher orders of random errors of the regression model. The results of statistical modeling by the Monte Carlo method confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach