May 26-27, 2022 – Łukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP).
3 keynote talks and 48 regular papers in 3 topic sessions.
Titles and abstracts of the papers ordered by topic session are presented below.

Digital Transformation towards Industrial 5.0
Okyay Kaynak
Bogazici University, Turkey
Abstract: This presentation discusses the profound technological changes that have taken place around us during the last two decades, supported by the new disruptive advances both on the software and the hardware sides, as well as the cross-fertilization of concepts and the amalgamation of information, communication, and control technology-driven approaches. In recent years, to change the whole format of industrial automation, these developments have been taken further, especially in Germany, under the label “Industry 4.0”. The dominant feature of Industry 4.0 is the integration of the virtual world with the physical world through the Internet of Things (IoT). Such engineered systems are named Cyber-Physical Systems built from, and depend upon, the seamless integration of computational algorithms and physical components. A more comprehensive description of what is happening around us is the digital transformation. After reviewing these profound changes, a preview of Industry 5.0 is presented. The presentation then switches to integrating AI in digital transformation in various forms. A brief history of AI and a look into the future are presented, emphasizing Symbiotic Autonomous Systems. The presentation will conclude, pondering whether “Singularity,” as was defined 15 years ago, will meet the same fate as the “Thinking Machines.

Piezoresistive pressure sensors for technical and biomechanical applications
Andrius Dzedzickis
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania
Abstract: Recent progress observed in robotics, machine learning and other automatization areas brought some promising results in developing the piezoresistive pressure sensors based on polymeric or powdered composite materials. Therefore, this report intends to present the development research and successful implementation of direct pressure sensors based on polyethene-carbon composite (Velostat®) or synthetic iron (III) oxide powder. We have explored several sensors configurations and assessed the mechanical and time-dependent characteristics. Sensors responses were evaluated by performing loading tests in static, long-term load and cyclic modes. One developed sensor type was implemented in a practical biomechanical application – human gait analysis. Obtained results define sensors nonlinearities, operating ranges, response time and possible implementation areas. Powder-based sensors distinguish by higher stiffness and thermal resistance; therefore, they can measure higher loads in harsh environmental conditions, contrary to Velostat® based sensors that showed well performance in biomechanical applications.

Hydrogen and fuel cells for Long Duration Robot Missions in Field Environments
Magdalena Dudek
Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. St. Staszica w Krakowie
Abstract: In recent years, there has been an increase in unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and mobile robot usage for civil, rescue and military applications. Challenging environments will provide potential applications where human involvement may be difficult, impossible, or dangerous, and lead to risks to life or health. For these applications, propulsion unit using internal combustion engines are powerful and range, but not without their disadvantages. Despite these impairments, silent mobile robots are now intensively developed, powered with electric motors since low noise and heat emissions are also required to hinder detection and facilitate the successful performance of missions. Fuel cells as a power source for electric propulsion of UGVs show growing applications because of their energy densities that exceed 800Wh/kg, compared to 150Wh/kg for advanced batteries. Hence, fuel cell system weights are ca. three and one-half times less than a Li-ion battery with similar parameters, and eight times less than a nickel-metal hydride battery, and even sixteen times less than a lead-acid battery pack. The application of fuel cells represents another option for electric engines and are electrochemical devices that directly convert the chemical energy of fuel, (mainly hydrogen), into electricity. These devices can operate for as long as there is a supply of reagents (especially fuel). The operating time of power sources involving fuel cells depends on their level of electric power consumption and the fuel amount. Hydrogen is the most commonly applied fuel in fuel cells, but it is possible to use alternative fuels. The time for charging hydrogen into composite tanks is lower than in the case of charging batteries. In this work the world status of the application of fuel cells technology in mobile ground vehicles for the military and other special applications is presented. The analysis of the current status of fuel cells (type of fuel cells and their construction) and hydrogen storage system. The paper presents the concept of the hybridisation of fuel cells with batteries or supercapacitors and the benefits for applications in propulsion units. The strategy of energy management system, for current flowing from individual sources (battery, fuel cell or. supercapacitors) is also presented. In the paper analyses the possible implementation of algorithms on the on board computer for predicting fuel consumption, the expected length of operation time for robots and energy needs for their mission. Future challenges of engineered UGV operations that include: the need to maximize mission duration by providing vital range-extending power; the possibility of operating on locally available alternative fuels; the elaboration of strategies for saving fuel and improving the shock and vibration resistance of power sources are also presented. The potential of the application of fuel cells in UVG platforms together with the techno-economic analysis of hydrogen technologies and fuel cells in mobile robots, compared to the expected trends in the energy transition and the development of a global hydrogen economy.

Variability in the height of layers for robotised WAAM process
1Julia Wilk, 1Norbert Prokopiuk, 2Piotr Falkowski
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,
Abstract: The dynamic development of industrial needs leads to the creation of innovative methods of manufacturing. In recent years, additive manufacturing, especially with the use of polymer material has arose in popularity. In heavy industry, there is a seek for manufacturing objects with high mechanical and temperature properties; met by WAAM technology. The following paper addresses the challenge of investigating geometry proprieties of welds. Moreover, the measurements are the base to develop automatic methods for creating objects with predictable shapes. For this purpose, welding trials with various parameters were conducted. These subsequently allowed finding optimal settings for additive manufacturing with the use of MIG-MAG technology. The study concerned an analysis of the geometry of the welds dependent on the height of the printouts with the WAAM method. The dependence between the number of layers and the general height of the object was modelled. There was a tendency to melt the previous layers of welds in the case of no breaks between the layers applied. On the contrary, a linear relationship between the number of layers applied and the height of the weld appeared while pausing between laying down subsequent layers. Hence, this proves that proper cooling is necessary for additive manufacturing with the use of this welding technology.

Invariant subspaces of fractional linear continuous-time systems
Tadeusz Kaczorek
Politechnika Białostocka
Abstract: The A-invariant and (A,B)-invariant linear subspaces are introduced for fractional linear continuous-time linear systems. The basic properties of these invariant linear subspaces are extended to the fractional linear systems and illustrated on simple examples. An extension to fractional descriptor linear systems is also given.

The initial problem for a discrete, scalar fractional order system.
Krzysztof Oprzędkiewicz
Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. St. Staszica w Krakowie
Abstract: In the paper the initial problem for a scalar, discrete, fractional order system is adderessed. The fractional operator is expressed using CFE approximation. Results are illustrated by simulations.

Synthesis of a state feedback controller for an averaging tank with variable filling
Michał Kolankowski, Robert Piotrowski
Politechnika Gdańska,
Abstract: In paper, a nonlinear averaging tank with variable filling is considered. The main purpose of this research work was the modelling and control system synthesis of an averaging tank. The control objectives included ensuring stability and zero steady-state error of the system and achieving settling time as short as possible, while maintaining a minimal overshoot. In order to achieve the intended purpose, firstly a mathematical model of the control plant was derived. The model was adapted to the form required to design the control system by linearization and reduction of its dimensions, resulting in two system variants. A state feedback and output feedback with integral action control system of the averaging tank was designed using a linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) and optimization of weights. The developed control system was tested using Matlab environment. Finally, based on simulation results, performance of the control system in different variants and effects of optimization were assessed.

Discrete Time Sliding Mode Control with State Constraints and Limited Control Signal
Marek Jaskuła, Piotr Leśniewski
Politechnika Łódzka,
Abstract: In this paper we discuss the issue of constraining the state variables and the control input in the sliding mode control approach. The considered linear system is perturbed by unknown but bounded external disturbances. In addition, the model uncertainties can vary in time. The sliding mode controller is designed via the reaching law technique and the convergence rate is selected to ensure the fastest and monotonic approaching of the representative point to the predefined switching hyperplane. Moreover, the state constraints are considered in form of linear combinations and the duration of the reaching phase is bounded from above. Results are presented in lemmas that are formally stated and proved.

PID and FOPID controllers combinations during control of 3D crane optimized with GWO algorithm
Jakub Żegleń-Włodarczyk, Klaudia Wajda
Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. St. Staszica w Krakowie,
Abstract: The article presents 3D crane control of all three axes (XYZ) and both angles (alpha and beta). PID controllers and their fractional counterparts – FOPID controllers, which have two additional parameters, were used. Previous research focused on a direct comparison of the two types of controllers. This time, the authors used various combinations to check which part of the system influences the quality of control the most. The model and simulations were implemented in the Matlab / Simulink environment. Grey-Wolf Optimizer was used to optimize the controller coefficients. Several combinations of PID and FOPID controllers were compared (e.g. 2 PID controllers on the XY axes and 3 FOPID controllers on the Z axis and alpha and beta angles).

Multi Depot UAVs routing subject to changing weather and time windows variation
1Grzegorz Radzki, 1Grzegorz Bocewicz, 2Jaroslaw Wikarek, 3Peter Nielsen, 1Zbigniew Banaszak
1Politechnika Koszalińska, 2Politechnika Świętokrzyska, 3Aalborg University, Denmark,,,,
Abstract: The presented problem being an extension of well know Vehicle Routing Prob-lem (VRP) concerns the routes planning of the UAVs fleet carrying out the de-liveries to spatially dispersed impatient customers in a highly dynamic environ-ment within a specified timeframe. The problem under consideration integrates the Capacitated VRP, Split Delivery VRP, Heterogeneous VRP, Multi Depot VRP, Multi-visit VRP as well as VRP with Time Windows. The developed model allows for proactive and reactive delivery missions planning in terms of the Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The sufficient conditions allowing to elimi-nate unfeasible solutions and thus allow to speed up the calculations have been implemented in decision support procedure aimed at UAVs online routing. The experiments carried out showed the usefulness of the proposed approach in plan-ning of UAVs’ mission performed in dynamic environment.

The use of RFID tags in controlling washing devices
1Marcin Hubacz, 1Bartosz Pawłowicz, 1Bartosz Trybus, 1Mateusz Salach, 2Sebastian Kołcz
1Politechnika Rzeszowska, 2Agendo Sp. z o.o.,,,,
Abstract: Modern Textronics RFID transponders open completely new possibilities for designers of household appliances. In particular, these applications can be seen in laundry technology, where the information contained in the RFID transponder sewn into the clothes can be used to select the best washing pro-gram for a given type of fabric or to select the appropriate washing program for different fabrics placed in the drum of the washing machine. The work included design and construction of a demonstration station for the demonstration of RFIDtex transponders in the washing machine. A management system for a model of a washing machine equipped with Read-Write Device (RWD) was prepared, which supports decision-making based on data provided by reading of RFIDtex tags integrated with clothes. The laundry device was integrated with cloud computing for garment management based on the unique identifier of the tags and also as an intermediary module for the virtual closet application. The work checked the effectiveness of the station using samples.

Early-Stage Faults Detection using Harmony Search Algorithm and STFT-Based Spectral Kurtosis
Muhammad Ahsan, Dariusz Bismor
Politechnika Śląska,
Abstract: The predictive maintenance of rotating machines helps to prevent economic loss and personal damage. Vibrational data of bearing is used to measure the early-stage faults but sometimes this vibrational data consists of many unwanted signals that need to be removed before applying the signal processing techniques. This paper proposes an algorithm to design a dynamic filter that can adjust its bandwidth and central frequency according to different faults that occurs in the rotating bearing. The harmony search algorithm is used to optimize the bandpass filter parameters according to the faults and the short-time Fourier trans-form-based Spectral Kurtosis helps measure the strength of fault frequencies. The filter parameters are selected that correspond to the maximum value of the short-time Fourier transform-based Spectral Kurtosis. The simulation results verify the performance of the proposed algorithm.

Comparison of nonlinear and linear models’ behaviour regarding rocket stability
Dariusz Miedziński, Robert Głębocki
Politechnika Warszawska,
Abstract: The article presents the comparison of nonlinear and linear models’ responses regarding the determination of rocket static and dynamic stability. A full nonlinear model was shown along with the derivation of the linearized model utilizing the small perturbation theory. Criteria for determination of static and dynamic stability were also presented. A simulational model was created, and the results of its validation based on the flight data of the FOK rocket, as well as plots and tables containing the comparison of both models were provided. The results show that the linear simplification of the full nonlinear model is sufficient in order to determine rocket stability during all phases of the flight.

Multithreading errors in data reading automation
Rafał Wojszczyk, Damian Giebas
Politechnika Koszalińska,
Abstract: With the development of the Internet of Things (IoT) domain, it is now possible to build IT systems fulfilling the role of control and measurement systems by non-professionals. Such systems created following the idea of “Do It Yourself (Do It Yourself) are successfully implemented not only in homes, but also in small enterprises that cannot afford to hire a professional team specialising in building such systems. These systems are usually built by ignoring many principles of software engineering, e.g. testing, which causes that these systems, for example, do not meet safety standards or operate unstably. In this study, an attempt was made to locate errors in the server application of an IT system playing the role of alarm and some elements of measurement.

The Multivariable Control for Dynamic Partially Observable Objects
1Viacheslav Ivashchuk, 2Igor Korobiichuk
1National University of Food Technologies, Ukraine, 2SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,
Abstract: The article is devoted to the development of algorithm of multivariable sliding control as for functionally complex class of objects, which have a nonlinear feedback. The control of drying process, when the fulfill of chamber is increased that usually driven by proportional-integral-differential (PID) law, which had been took as a base for comparison of results of parametrical stability, had been represented for example. This paper aimed to propose a hybrid control algorithm incorporating the inverse dynamic response of estimation and the nonlinear dynamic model for heat processes in drying chamber of the partially observable object. We made this for the spray drying process to minimize quality losses of product by adjustments of the inputs of the dryer according to the present internal disturbances and process constraints.

The optimization model of the production process for corporate architecture
Zbigniew Juzoń, Jarosław Wikarek, PaweŁ Sitek
Politechnika Świętokrzyska,,
Abstract: The article presents and discusses the issues related to the area of production process management in terms of enterprise corporate architecture to increase the volume and efficiency of production processes. The enterprise architec-ture also defines the parameters of the technological process and also enables the management of a complex set of auxiliary activities. At the stage of im-plementing automation and robotization of production processes, the aim of which is to replace (or at least significantly reduce) the involvement of peo-ple in the production process, modern technologies are usually applied (mo-bile robots, AVG, PLC, IoT, RFID, cloud computing, etc.). As a result, there is a problem with the proper allocation and configuration of production re-sources. All this has a strong influence on the company’s position in the market. There is a contradiction between planning and value orientation in production. The ability to manage production plans is the key to market ad-vantage. The article proposes a model for the optimization of the production process for corporate architecture in the form of a mathematical program-ming problem.

Maciej Filipowicz, Cezary Szczepański
SBŁ – Instytut Lotnictwa,
Abstract: The paper presents the design and performance of the flight stabilisation system’s onboard computer developed in Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation. The presented unit is an electronic block performing automatic flight stabilisation of an aeroplane using trimmers. It was designed based on the launch platform PZL-130 Orlik aircraft requirements. The article contains the unit’s hardware and software design description, unit performance, tests results and conclusions with improvements possibilities.

Support for PN-EN 61131-3 standard data types in ARM architecture with memory access restrictions
Marcin Hubacz, Jan Sadolewski, Bartosz Trybus
Politechnika Rzeszowska,,
Abstract: The article presents the results of research on the handling of data types from the PN-EN 61131-3 standard in systems with ARM architecture. The tests were carried out on several different hardware platforms with the Cortex-M and Cortex-A series as CPUs. The research was carried out on the basis of the CPDev environment for creating and running control software. Due to the limitations of the ARM architecture, three methods of access to memory have been developed, and the results allow to determine the most effective. The article also presents the proposed virtual machine extension with new instructions to make data operations in ARM solutions more efficient.

Discretization step and PID settings for voltage controlled discrete servo
Andrzej Bożek, Leszek Trybus
Politechnika Rzeszowska,
Abstract: A method for selection of discretization step and discrete PID controller settings is presented for a model of servo with voltage controlled motor, described by an integrator with time constant. The method assumes a triple pole location of the closed-loop system to provide smooth control transients. Settling time is a design data. Influence of filtering degree in controller derivative component on reduction of discretization step is examined. Extended design problem with the filtering degree being an additional requirement is also considered.

Implementation of the ship’s autopilot in the CPDev environment
Zbigniew Świder
Politechnika Rzeszowska
Abstract: Ship autopilots can be divided into conventional, only capable of maintaining a given course (heading), and advanced, which can additionally keep the ship on the “path” (track) connecting the given navigation points along the route. The article presents the structure of a prototype autopilot of a ship implemented in the CPDev environment and the formulas allowing to determine the settings of the course controller (PID) and the track controller (PI) in the cascade control. For each of them, single design parameters were adopted to define the dynamics of the closed control loop. These rules were applied in the software of the autopilot prototype, created in cooperation with a Dutch company designing control and visualization systems for ships.

Andrzej Typiak, Rafał Typiak
Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna,
Abstract: Abstract: The transition of automated machine systems towards autonomous operation is progressing fast in various industrial sectors. The following paper presents the current situation in the regulations that normalize and support the development of working machines for construction purposes. A review of the existing ISO and IEC standards alongside own work focusing on autonomous machines, as well as a review of different activities in international industry groups regarding automation and autonomy of machines have been presented. Three different approaches to the concept of safety have been identified for different working conditions. The paper also tackles issues of on-board machine communication. By analysing different systems and their basic requirements, several optimization possibilities have been identified in relation to combining different data sources. It has been shown that the combination of different systems at the machine level as well as the connection between different machines can have a major impact on the performance of both the entire system as well as on the machine itself.

Research of attractive behavior of a control object at its computer modeling
1Yaroslav Smityuh, 1Vasii Kyshenko, 1Alexander Romashchuk
1National University of Food Technologies, Ukraine,,
Abstract: The analysis of time series of variables of the juice purification process at the sugar factory was carried out by methods of nonlinear dynamics, which allowed to determine the values of chaos and randomness based on the depth of prediction of object behavior. Reconstruction of the object attractors was carried out and their features were determined. The fractal dimension of time series of the main technological parameters was determined, which allowed to make a deep prediction of the object ‘s behavior. The intensity of the influence of the value of the technological parameter on the process to increase the efficiency of management of the technological complex of the sugar plant is determined.

Resource efficiency forecasting neural network model for the sugar plant diffusion station
1Nataliia Zaiets, 2Lidiia Vlasenko, 3Nataliia Lutska, 4Vladimir Shtepa
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 2Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics, Ukraine, 3National University of Food Technologies, Ukraine, 4Polessky State University, Belarus,,,
Abstract: The article proposes a model of the diffusion station of a sugar factory based on the neural network, which predicts the main technological indicators of resource efficiency. In contrast to existing solutions, forecasting is per-formed in real time, which allows one to increase the informative support of the operator-technologist on the enterprise quality measurements without ad-ditional workload on the industrial laboratory. The proposed model predicts the loss of sugar in the pulp and the amount of sugar in the diffusion juice with an error of less than 2 %. The input variables of the forecast model are automatically measurable technological variables of the process, a total of eleven. On the basis of such information one can make a corresponding decision to change technological modes (tempera-ture and consumption) at the station, thereby increasing the quality of beet processing. The article consists of two parts: analysis of process variables, including statistical and definition of input and output model variables; development and verification of the forecast model.

Wavelet analysis of the behavior of the process of rectification of alcohol as an object of control
1Yaroslav Smityuh, 1Vasii Kyshenko, 1Anatoliy Ladanyuk, 1Dmitry Krishchenko
1National University of Food Technologies, Ukraine,,,,
Abstract: Mathematical and numerical modeling of time series of variables of technological process of alcohol rectification by means of wavelet analysis is considered in the work. The algorithm for processing the time series is to determine the stochasticity, chaos and analysis of special states of the system using wavelet transform. This complex application provides more complete information about the studied process, described by time series. The efficiency of the method of wavelet analysis of time is proved series of technological parameters of alcohol production to improve the accuracy of control and diagnosis of critical situations.

The Use of STM32f103xx Microcontroller to Create and Prototype Low Cost Laboratory Experiments
1Svitlana Sharuda, 1Oleh Sharuda, 1Sergey Kirichuk, 1Natalya Savitskaya, 1Sergey Shved
1National University of Food Technologies, Ukraine,,,,,,
Abstract: This article describes the Home Lab Easy Kit project, which can be used to simplify the creation of an experimental setup and save time for other more important tasks, such as the logic of the experiment, calculations, etc. Efficiency is achieved by generated firmware for well known, cheap and accessible STM32F103C8T6 micro controller (MCU). There are number of boards accessible on the market which may be also referred as “Blue pill”. This project allows linkage with generated C++ library that implements communication with micro controller and provide simple interfaces to MCU peripherals. This project allows to use some STM32F103C8T6 peripherals with Linux based microcomputers like Raspberry Pi using I2C bus.

Theoretical simulations of scanning electrochemical microscope positioning system
Mantas Makulavičius, Andrius Dzedzickis, Vytautas Bučinskas, Jurga Subačiūtė-Žemaitienė, Inga Morkvėnaitė-Vilkončienė
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania,,,,
Abstract: This paper deals with the scanning electrochemical microscope microelectrode (SECM) positioning methods. Constant height, constant distance, and hopping intermittent contact methods were analyzed. Control algorithms are created, and the system is programmed in MATLAB Simulink environment using the existing mathematical SECM negative feedback model. Simulations were made using these models and the results were com-pared with a known object. Results show that both, constant distance and HIC methods provided better results than the constant height positioning method.

Sitting posture monitoring using Velostat® based pressure sensors matrix
Vaiva Treciokaite, Aurimas Cerskus, Andrius Dzedzickis, Vytautas Bucinskas, Marius Sumanas, Inga Morkvėnaite-Vilkonciene
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania,,,,,
Abstract: Working in an office environment leads to sedentary behavior. Prolonged sitting increases back pain and soreness, leading to spinal trauma – scoliosis. Therefore, this research aims to create an automatic tool to help identify the main human body characteristics responsible for good body mass distribution. For this purpose, an 8×8 pressure sensor matrix with signal acquisition system was built using Velostat®. The commercially available composite piezoresistive material was selected as a pressure transducer due to its flexibility, versatility and low price. After system calibration, its functionality was validated by observing the sitting postures of 9 participants. Participant matrix map analysis showed differences in force distribution between sexes and subjects with and without spine trauma. This research will help monitor the office environment and increase workers’ health and productivity.

Zenon Hendzel, Maciej Kołodziej
Politechnika Rzeszowska,
Abstract: In this paper we propose a new sensor-based navigation method for navigation of wheeled mobile robot, based on neural dynamic programming (NDP). We discuss a sensor-based approach to path design and control of wheeled mobile robot (WMR) in an unknown 2-D environment with static obstacles. A strategy of navigation is developed including two main behaviours: a reaching the middle of a collision-free space behaviour, and a goal-seeking behaviour. Each low-level behaviour has been designed at design stage and then fused to determine a proper actions acting on the environment at running stage. The NDP navigator which is the main theme of this paper, can fuse low-level behaviours so that the mobile robot can go for the goal position without colliding with obstacles one for the convex obstacles and one for the concave ones. The navigator is a soft switch, based on the idea of NDP, sometimes been called reinforcement learning (RL), that chooses more then one action to be active with different degrees at each time step. This solution is based on the RL method of actor-critic architecture for continuous-time, continuous state and does not require pre-learning and working on-line without robot model knowl-edge. The proposed RL systems will be capable of avoiding too many trial and errors learning process. The output of the navigation level is fed into a neural tracking controller that takes into account the dynamics of the WMR. Computer simulations have been conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed solution by a series of experiments on the emulator of WMR Pioneer-2DX

Predicting dynamics of a rehabilitation exoskeleton with free degrees of freedom
Piotr Falkowski
SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP
Abstract: The challenges of the modern world accelerated the development of many fields of technology, including rehabilitation robotics. The focus of the robot-aided motor therapy is put on providing remote, home treatment. According to the conducted research, also, functional kinesiotherapy is a leading trend for the future. Therefore, designing a mechatronic device enabling such a workout is needed. The presented study is based on a concept of an upper extremity exoskeleton with free degrees of freedom. However, it is applicable for any exoskeleton with non-controlled joints. The paper corresponds to the problem of a control system for a not fully controlled robot; especially, as the mass parameters of the user’s limb remain unknown. Investigated prediction control is based on a recurrent neural network model of the system. The dynamics simulations are all performed without the usage of a physical device. Nevertheless, the outcomes of the trials prove, that such a control approach is suitable for the exoskeletons with free degrees of freedom. The results may be the base to adjust basic parameters of the neural networks used for similar applications.

Intuitive robot programming and interaction using RGB-D perception and CNN-based objects detection
Bartłomiej Kulecki
Politechnika Poznańska
Abstract: Robots programming requires knowledge about a specific robot programming language and control interfaces. Also, re-programming the robot to perform a slightly different task requires domain-specific knowledge. These requirements limit the application of robots in small-scale flexible production plants where the robot should be re-programmed frequently. This paper presents a human-robot interface for programming a robotic arm with an RGB-D camera for pick-and-place tasks using natural language. We propose a novel architecture of the system that utilizes voice recognition, pointer, and CNN-based object detection modules to intuitively program robot motions. The created system allows the operator to program motion trajectories or choose an object for grasping using a visual pointer and voice commands.

Jerzy Graffstein
SBŁ – Instytut Lotnictwa
Abstract: The exact identification of essential factors affecting the course of evasive manoeuvre, that has been computed to avoid a collision with moving obstacles, is necessary to ensure a safe passing by a moving obstacle. At the same time, during the evasive manoeuvre the pre defined separation between the airplane and obstacles is required. The matter of presented work is defined as the analysis of influence of factors on execution of anti collision manoeuvre taking into account deformation of flight trajectory and changes of time histories of distance from the airplane to detected obstacles. Attention has been focused om internal interactions, resulting from the essential changes of the airplane’s behaviour. Discussion has been illustrated by selected results of computer simulations, executed for typical manoeuvres performed to avoid obstacles, while affected by adverse impacts of selected factors. The appropriate guidelines have been proposed, that should counteract these adverse effects on realisation of computed manoeuvre.

Support for perimeter border protection using unmanned ground vehicle UGV.
Jakub Kowaliński, Tomasz Krakówka, Rafał Więckowski, Mikołąj Zarzycki
SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,
Abstract: The article concerns the most important issues of designing an unmanned vehicle for the implementation of observation tasks in the protection of the perimeter of the state border. An analysis of the terrain conditions necessary for the unmanned vehicle to overcome and a description of the key components of the HUNTeR vehicle responsible for the ability to work in such conditions was presented. Also included were tests verifying the basic assumptions of the project in the field of operation at the maximum speed of travel.

Seamless multi-platform tracing: Shadow Builder
Alexandre Malki, Tomasz Kołcon, Mateusz Maciaś
SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,
Abstract: Tracing software application is a mandatory step toward producing quality code and software. Many of the tracing tools exist, with their set of advantages and limitations. This variety of tools forces developers to introducing readability over-head and additional software glues. This paper presents a solution for reducing code branching to obtain a multi-platform, cleaner code base along with a comparison to the already existing tools.

Vision based navigation securing the UAV mission reliability
1Tomasz Pogorzelski, 2Teresa Zielińska
1SBŁ – Instytut Lotnictwa, 2Politechnika Warszawska,
Abstract: Redundant location is essential for the reliable mission completion by unmanned aerial vehicles. It plays a key role, e.g., in cities where radio signals are particularly susceptible to interference, reflections and where the transmission of satellite location signals may be temporarily interrupted. In the event of loss of the classic navigation abilities due to the above-mentioned factors or equipment failure, the autopilot should be able to determine the position and orientation of the vehicle in order to successfully complete the mission. This article describes shortly a hardware configuration of an additional navigation system and a method of real time localization which is operating in the absence of satellite data. The directions of further work were also presented.

Smart warehouse as an example of micro-ROS application
Tomasz Kołcon, Mateusz Maciaś, Alexandre Malki
SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,
Abstract: The use of ROS / ROS2 in real life is becoming more and more com- mon. One of the ROS2 extensions is micro-ROS. Smart warehouse is a use case that aims to demonstrate how micro-ROS can be used in a low power wireless network environment. In the described case, the mobile base platform moves around the warehouse performing sched- uled tasks. It shows how, thanks to micro-ROS, it is possible to easily connect basic elements such as sensors and actuators, which are based on microcontrollers, to a large system based on ROS / ROS2.

Prototype of the Arm-Z modular solar tracker
1Ela Zawidzka, 1Jacek Szklarski, 2Wojciech Kinski, 1Machi Zawidzki
1Polska Akademia Nauk, 2SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,
Abstract: Arm-Z is a hyper-redundant manipulator based on a sequence of linearly joined identical modules. Each module has only one degree of freedom – a twist relative to the previous module. Arm-Z can be potentially economical, as the modules can be mass-produced. Arm-Z is also robust, as the malfunctioning module can be replaced. Moreover – if some modules malfunction the device can still execute tasks with certain accuracy. However, the disadvantage of Arm-Z is a non-intuitive and difficult control. This paper presents the prototype of a modular Sun-tracking device comprised of four identical modules. The possible application: solar energy harvesting or Sun-shading.

Selection of loads in the design and optimization of manipulators of portable mobile robots for special applications
1Tomasz Krakówka, 2Andrzej Typiak
1SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 2Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna,
Abstract: The construction of mobile robot manipulators for special applications must be optimized to achieve the required working capacity while maintaining a low mass. In the literature on the optimization of manipulator structures, the authors most often take into account the most unfavorable load case in their calculations or take into account several distinguished load cases resulting from the static or dynamic of the loaded manipulator. To optimize the design of a teleoperated robot manipulator, which during operation is exposed to contact with obstacles in an unstructured environment, the load analysis must be carried out in many aspects. The results of such analysis are used to select manipulator elements, e.g. drives, and to determine the loads for the design of the load-bearing structure and its optimization. The determined loads can be used to perform topological optimization of components of manipulators to minimize the mass while maintaining strength adapted to the operating conditions. Preliminary work on the preparation of a method for selecting such loads is presented.

Experimental Comparison of Selected Triangulation and TOF Optical Distance Sensors
Bogdan Kreczmer, Piotr Portasiak
Politechnika Wrocławska,
Abstract: In the paper, features of two optical distance sensors are compared and discussed. The considered sensors are the triangulation sensor GP2Y0A02YK0F and the time-of-flight sensor VL53L0X. To compare and illustrate their features, the results of conducted experiments were used. They are discussed and explanations for some of the observed phenomena are given.

The identification method of the sources of radiated electromagnetic disturbances using near-field measurements
Krzysztof Trzcinka
SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP
Abstract: The article presents the results of tests of a simple device, consisting in locating the source of the emission of disturbances by means of measurements in the near-field zone with manual positioning of the measuring probe. The effectiveness of locating the source of disturbances was finally verified by the positive result of the radiated emission tests in the EMC laboratory.

Image-based monitoring of glass melting process
Piotr Garbacz, Piotr Czajka
SBŁ – Instytut Technologii Eksploatacji,
Abstract: The paper presents an image-based method for monitoring glass melting process in a glass furnace. To ensure the high reliability of the monitoring system and compliance with the industrial conditions, a robust vision head module was designed and integrated with the cooling and refraction systems. The vision system structure was verified in the course of long-term tests, which allowed for the identification of the risk factors and impact of operating conditions. Based on the images recorded during the operation, algorithms for determining selected process parameters were implemented. Additionally, self-diagnostics algorithms were proposed to identify potential undesired system behaviours in the future operation. The integration into the glassworks network and knowledge database was also an important element of the described system. The article ends with the presentation of the benefits of an ongoing image-based monitoring of glass melting processes and of the capabilities of the statistical data analysis employing a machine learning technology.

The effect of camera exposure on the results of spatial-frequency processing and the quality of the obtained amplitude images
Piotr Miś, Przemysław Szulim
Politechnika Warszawska,
Abstract: The paper presents the results of experiments which purpose was disclosure the influence of image recording parameters, such as exposure time, on the quality of the resulting amplitude image. An amplitude image is a condensed data representation which is the result of spacial-frequency processing. It is a author’s method that uses spectral analysis and focuses on the study of changes in pixel intensity levels in time. The amplitude image, proposed by the authors, is something new in relation to known solutions using pulsating visual markers. The main motivation to start work in this area was the need to design a localization system that will generate position information from several independent sources. The method can be used in the issue of localization and navigation. The ability to search visual markers located at a great distance from the receiver is its special feature. The authors present the results of research into the impact of the recording camera exposure time on the quality of the resulting images in order to select the best value. The beginning of the manuscript presents a description how the exposure time of the camera can potentially affect the quality of the obtained images. The description of the problem was supported by a literature analysis of papers related to the issue of localization based on the visual markers and the camera. The next section presents the description of spacial-frequency processing and the main purposes of generating amplitude images. The research part describes the assumptions, equipment and research procedure. Then, the results of the research into the influence of the camera exposure time on the quality of the resulting amplitude images are presented.

1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Serhii Semeniuk, 2Vladyslav Shybetskyi, 2Sergii Kostyk, 2Vadym Povodzinsky
1SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 2National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”,,,,
Abstract: . A new bioreactor design for the cultivation of anchorage-dependent cell cultures in a monolayer was developed. Computational simulation of hydro-dinamic in the developed apparatus and the reference bioreactor Xpansion® (Pall) were carried out. The modeling was carried out in the CFX module (Ansys) using the k-e turbulence model. For two constructions results were obtained for the velocity of fluid, the rate of shear forces, and the shear stress on the walls of the anchorage of the cells. The obtained results show better hydrodynamic characteristics of the developed apparatus design.

1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Vladyslav Shybetskyi, 2Sergii Kostyk, 2Myroslava Kalinina, 2Andriy Tsytsiura
1SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 2National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”,,,,
Abstract: This article is devoted to computer simulation of the hydrodynamics of a bi-oreactor with a standard open-type turbine mixer, with a two-disc open-type turbine mixer with straight blades and with differently oriented blades at an angle of 45º and 135º using ANSYS software. Comparative analyses of the hydrodynamics of liquid flows that occur in the volume of the bioreactor due to the mixing of the medium by different designs of mixing devices were made. Experimental researches for the investigated designs of mixers for confirmation of adequacy of the offered models are carried out. A new design of an open-type two-disk turbine mixer with differently oriented blades is proposed, which allows reducing the probability of a vortex during mixing. It is established that the proposed turbine practically does not form a vortex, and at a speed of 400 rpm its depth is 0.06 m, and for 600 rpm – 0.012m.

Estimate of the impact of pollutant emissions from imported vehicles from the European Union countries to Ukraine
1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Andriy Ilchenko, 2Volodymyr Shumliakivskyi, 2Hanna Kireitseva
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2Zhytomyr Polytechnic State University, Ukraine,,,
Abstract: Potential emissions volumes of toxic substances of cars are calculated and the material analysis of their structure is carried out. Estimated of statistical analysis of the parameters of cars that have already been used in EU coun-tries and were imported to Ukraine. These cars were tested by means and equipment of the testing laboratory. The number of studied cars is 1235 units. It is proved that these cars have a significant impact on the environmental situation, their emissions from exhaust gases are 440.6 tons/year, 61% of which is carbon monoxide. Based on the analysis of the parameters of imported cars, as well as the type of fuel used by them, their impact on the state of the air and possible consequences for public health was assessed.

Correction of Temperature Influences in Moisture of Bulk Materials Measurement by Capacitance Method
1Mykhaylo Dorozhovets, 2Roman Ivakh, 3Zygmunt Warsza
1Politechnika Rzeszowska, 2Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine, 3SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,
Abstract: In this paper the methodical and instrumental aspects of the correction of temperature influences in moisture of bulk material express measurement are considerate. Bilinear coefficients of capacitance dependence on moisture and temperature were determined to provide a correction based on the performed measurements of sensor capacitance for 4 reference moisture specimens of the test material with simultaneous measurement of their temperature. Based on obtained relationship, the temperature influence correction function was determined. The combined standard uncertainty of the correction was estimated as a function of the uncertainty of the 8 influencing factors. It was shown that the correction reduces the systematic influence of temperature by 10 to 40 times.

Instrumental covariance and its impact on the uncertainty of tested parameters of industrial objects
1Yevhen Volodarsky, 2Zygmunt Warsza, 3Larysa Kosheva, 1Alex Sautin
1National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, 2SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 3National Aviation University, Ukraine,,,
Abstract: The analysis shows that many parameters of industrial facilities are determined by computational operations on the results of direct measurements. Such measurements can be arranged according to parallel and parallel-serial structure of the measurement system. Considering that there are interference in the experimental study of industrial facilities, preference is given to a parallel-serial measurement structure, which provides high noise immunity, and also uses only one measuring channel (MC). The bias of the real characteristic of the measuring conversion during the direct measurement of the input quantities, which can take one of the possible values in the given dynamic range, remains constant. In this case, a stochastic relationship arises between the input quantities; hereinafter, this relationship will be called instrumental covariance. The influence of instrumental covariance on the estimated uncertainty of tested parameter depends on arithmetic operations performed on functionally related results of direct measurements. Many such parameters are determined using multiplication and division operations. A simple example is determining the power and resistances from direct current and voltage measurements. The influence of the ratio between the input values on the additional component of the estimated uncertainty of the object parameter due to instrumental covariance is analyzed. Recommendations on how to reduce the impact of instrumental covariance are also given.

Application of the Polynomial Maximization Method for Estimation Parameters of Autoregressive Models with Asymmetric Innovations
1Serhii Zabolotni, 2Oleksandr Tkachenko, 3Zygmunt Warsza
1Cherkasy State Business-College, Ukraine, 2Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Ukraine, 3SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,
Abstract: This paper considers the application of the Polynomial Maximization Method to find estimates of the parameters of autoregressive model with non-Gaussian innovation. This approach is adaptive and is based on the analysis of higher-order statistics. Analytical expressions that allow finding estimates and analyzing their uncertainty are obtained. Case of asymmetry of the dis-tribution of autoregressive innovations is considered. It is shown that the var-iance of estimates of the Polynomial Maximization Method can be signifi-cantly less than the variance of the estimates of the linear approach (based on Yule–Walker equation or Ordinary Least Squares). The increase in accu-racy depends on the values of the cumulant coefficients of higher orders of innovation residuals. The results of statistical modeling by the Monte Carlo method confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Measurement uncertainty evaluation of parameters describing the calibrated curves
1Igor Zakharov, 2Pavel Neyezhmakov, 2Valery Semenikhin, 3Zygmunt Warsza
1Kharkiv National University of Radio Electronics, Ukraine, 2National Scientific Center “Institute of Metrology”, Ukraine, 3SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,
Abstract: Relationships characterizing measuring instruments are determined in a measuring experiment called calibration. The values of the parameters describing calibrated curves are measured with associated uncertainties. Identification of a given type of dependency is made based on the obtained values of the measured parameters. The most popular method of this identification is the least squares method, well implemented for polynomial relationships [1]. In metrological practice, when identifying a non-linear calibrated relationship, it very often happens that increasing the polynomial degree within reasonable limits does not lead to a significant reduction of the approximation error. In that case, the primary dependence is transformed into a linear one by changing the variables. Then the parameters of such a linearized relationship are determined by the least squares’ method. The article discusses the solution of estimating the uncertainty of parameters identified for the non-polynomial dependence, considering the instrumental uncertainties for the measured values.

Implementation of ZKR-1 Wireless Communication Jammer. Presentation of the results of research and development project.
Konrad Bożek
SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP
Abstract: The article presents two modular radio transmission jamming devices developed by the consortium of Łukasiewicz-PIAP and ITTI sp. z o.o. as part of the project: “Jamming of radio transmission in selected facilities of the Border Guard”. In typical operating conditions the devices ensure effective blocking of radio communication (prevention of information leakage, protection against remote radio detonation of IED) and analysis of the frequency spectrum in the 25 MHz to 5.9 GHz band. Developed jammers are intended for use by professional state services, have a modern user interface and offer the possibility of remote control. The most important parameters and functionalities are characterized, as well as the distinguishing non-standard operating modes are discussed, i.e. the spectrum analysis mode and the responsive jamming mode, which minimizes the negative effects of user’s exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the vicinity of working devices for a long time.

Improved control of mesh density in adaptive tetrahedral meshes for finite elements modeling
1Anna Ostaszewska-Liżewska, 1Dominika Kopala, 2Roman Szewczyk
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,
Abstract: Tetrahedral meshing is the key element of finite elements modeling. Recently, adaptive meshing is commonly used. In such meshing, accordingly to Delaunay method, mesh density is connected with curvature of modelled object’s edge. Such method is especially efficient during modelling the mechanical systems. However, efficiency of commonly used meshing algorithms is strongly limited in surface-focused phenomena, such as eddy current induced by magneto-dynamic processes. The presented paper is filling the gap in the state of the art. Proposed solutions for Delaunay meshing are implemented in open-source GMSH software. In the proposed method, tetrahedral mesh density may be flexibly modified according to the needs connected with modelled physical phenomena. As a result, physical effects may be efficiently and accurately described in finite elements models. The paper presents implementations, which are available as open-source software for further practical use and development.

Sensitivity limits and functional characteristics optimization of fluxgate sensors with rod-shaped magnetic cores
1Dominika Kopala, 1Anna Ostaszewska-Liżewska, 2Roman Szewczyk
1Politechnika Warszawska, 2SBŁ – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,
Abstract: Highly sensitive magnetic field fluxgate sensors with rod-shaped cores are widely used for nondestructive testing as well as for industrial applications. However, in the case of both Foerster and Vacquier (two-core sensors configurations) fluxgate sensors sensitivity is directly connected with relative permeability of sensor’s core. It should be highlighted, that magnetic permeability of rod-shaped magnetic cores is mostly connected with its demagnetization factor N determined by its slenderness (aspect ratio). The paper presents the analyses of sensitivity limits of fluxgate sensors with rod-shaped cores. On the base of demagnetization factor estimations it is shown, that in the case of rod-shaped cores of sensors, its sensitivity is rather connected with the shape of core, not its relative magnetic permeability. This conclusion is especially important during the development and optimization of fluxgate sensors.