March 2–4, 2016 – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP).

3 keynote papers and 83 regular papers in five topic sessions. Below: names of the sessions and titles of the papers with abstracts.


Hierarchical Models in Modern Control Theory

Dmitry A. Novikov

Institute of Control Sciences, Russia, Moscow

Abstract: Historical and modern approaches towards heterogeneous models and hierarchical modeling in control theory are listed. A unified approach to-wards a design of hierarchical models of multiagent systems is described and illustrated by the example of diffuse bomb model. Problems of “hierarchical automation” in organization-technical and production systems are described. General problems of hierarchical modeling are underlined.


Computer Vision and Robotics – New Contexts

Andrzej Kasiński

Poznan University of Technology

Abstract: Progress in hardware technology and software development for computer vision systems provides new challenges and opportunities for robotics. It is to be pointed out such new circumstances like the availability of low-cost RGD-D cameras, steadily growing potential of smart cameras, the progress in embedded systems technology, and a mature technology of wireless networks, of internet in particular (the rising idea of the internet of things). Nowadays, there are available means to implement the idea of the ubiquitous, autonomous, large-scale computer vision, to build intelligent multi-agent computer vision systems – part of the control system of the team of robots. We witness the growing proliferation of embedded vision systems. It is possible to create multi-node wireless networks of smart cameras, which opens the way to supervise and control large, complex spaces, where the robots operate, and to perform the advanced measurements of the environment with computer vision methods. Steady growth of the processors embedded into cameras, accompanied with significant reduction of energy necessary to perform 1 MIPS, creates new opportunities for the application of computer vision potential in control systems of autonomous robots. It is to remark that radical growth of local processing power enabling in-depth image analysis in smart cameras reduces the intensity of information transfers among network nodes merely to message passing instead of video-streaming transfers.


Fault Tolerant-Control: Solutions and Challenges

Marcin Witczak, Marcin Pazera

University of Zielona Góra,

Abstract: Fault-Tolerant Control (FTC) systems are intensively investigated both from the theoretical and practical viewpoints. It is reflected in a large number of publications and research teams dealing with this emerging area. FTC is perceived as a technique integrating advanced fault diagnosis techniques and modern control methods that makes it possible a system to continue its mission under a faulty situation. It can be also observed that the fault diagnosis theory is well developed for linear systems. There are also approaches that can be efficiently used to minimize the uncertainty effect of the model of the system being controlled and diagnosed as well as noise and disturbances. This means that the development of analogous strategies for non-linear systems is fully justified. One of the main difficulties in the current development of FTC is the fact that most works presented in the literature treat fault diagnosis and FTC problems separately. Unfortunately, perfect fault diagnosis, and in particular fault identification, is impossible to attain. This justifies the necessity of developing integrated fault diagnosis and FTC, which takes into account such an unappealing phenomenon, both for linear and non-linear systems. As indicates the state-of-the-art regarding FTC, the integration issue is treated cursorily while the lack of suitable solution is replaced with a chain of (possibly conservative) assumptions related to fault diagnosis. Taking into account the above difficulties, the paper focuses on the presentation of modern FTC with analytical and soft computing approaches. An effective FTC methods are discussed along with the integration process of fault diagnosis and FTC.


World trends of robotics and technical challenges of Polish SME’s

Joanna Kulik, Lukasz Wojtczak

Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP),

Abstract: Article is devoted to a specific way of robotization in polish production’s SME’s. There are introduced challenges of origin polish market in that area. Annalise is done with taking care of integrated robotics cell on the background of worldwide trends and present development in the robotics field. At the same time in the article, there is shown discussion of two opinions, the first one which tells that in Poland, robotics market is similar to the best worldwide patterns, and the second one which shows, that robotization in Poland, had lost some steps – they were missed. The second one attitude give as a result, practical differences in integration of robotics cells. That topic is also descripted in the article.


Implementation of Dynamic Matrix Control Algorithm Using a Microcontroller with Fixed-Point Arithmetic

Patryk Chaber

Warsaw University of Technology

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to describe software implementation of the Dynamic Matrix Control (DMC) algorithm using a microcontroller with fixed-point arithmetic. A 32-bit RISC ARM platform is used, which is cheap, but quite a powerful hardware system. To prevent register overflow and drastic loss of precision, a partial shifting of values technique is performed. The DMC algorithm with fixed-point arithmetic is applied to a laboratory thermal process and the obtained results are compared with those of the DMC algorithm implemented in floating-point arithmetic.


Extension of model functionalities for multi-echelon distribution systems through the introduction of logical constraints

Paweł Sitek, Jarosław Wikarek

Kielce University of Technology,

Abstract: Multi-echelon distribution systems are quite common in supply-chain and city logistic systems. The paper presents a concept of extending functionality of the multi-distribution models by introduction logical constraints. This is possible by using a hybrid approach to modeling and optimization the multi-echelon problems. In the hybrid approach, two environments of mathematical programming (MP) and constraint logic programming (CLP) were integrated. Logical constraints are associated with the transformation of the problem made by the CLP. The Two-Echelon Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (2E-CVRP) has been proposed as an illustrative example. The logical constraints on routes, cities etc. were introduced to the standard 2E-CVRP model. The presented approach will be compared with classical mathematical programming on the same data sets (known benchmarks).


Neural Modelling of a Yeast Fermentation Process Using Extreme Learning Machines

Maciej Lawrynczuk

Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology

Abstract: This work details development of dynamic neural models of a yeast fermentation chemical reactor using Extreme Learning Machines (ELM). The ELM approach calculates very efficiently, without nonlinear optimisation, dynamic models, but only in the non-recurrent serial-parallel configuration. It is shown that in the case of the considered benchmark the ELM technique gives models which are also quite good recurrent long-range predictors, they work in the parallel configuration (simulation mode). Furthermore, properties of neural models obtained by the ELM and classical (optimisation-based) approaches are compared.


Robust scheduling subject to multi-project environment constraints

1 Grzegorz Bocewicz, 1Krzysztof Bzdyra, 2Zbigniew Banaszak

1 Koszalin University of Technology, 2Warsaw University of Technology,,

Abstract: The main objective is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at multi project-like and mass customized oriented multi-product scheduling. Its formal representation enables to formulate the straight and reverse problem scheduling of a newly inserted orders portfolio subject to constraints imposed by an enterprise multi-project environment. Considered problems correspond to the routine questions faced by decision makers and are formulated either in the straight or reverse way, e.g. Is it possible to undertake a new portfolio under given resources availability (e.g. constrained in time) while guaranteeing disturbance-free execution of the already executed portfolios? What values and of what decision variables guarantee the production order (or orders portfolio) will completed while following assumed set of performance indexes? In that context a computationally effective approach aimed at simultaneous routing and allocation as well as batching and scheduling of a new portfolio subject to constraints imposed by a multi-project environment is sought. Provided examples illustrate both cases while taking into account robust scheduling requirements imposed by multi-project environment constraints.


An application of a mobile expert system with augmented reality for aircraft maintenance support

Piotr Golański, Marek Szczekala

Instytut Techniczny Wojsk Lotniczych,

Abstract: The paper concerns on the problem of the supporting airplane diagnostic and maintenance processes. It presents the possibility of the using the modern technologies that can be used to facilitate and augment safety of the airplane maintenance operations. For this goal, it proposed a mobile device including expert system and equipped with user interface based on the augmented technologies. It discussed system structure and the way of his utilization for the M-28 diagnostic simulator.


Perception subsystem for object recognition and pose estimation in RGB-D images

1 Tomasz Kornuta, 2Michał Laszkowski

1 IBM Research, Almaden, 2Warsaw University of Technology,

Abstract: RGB-D sensors have become key components of all kind of robotic systems. In this paper we present a perception subsystem for object recognition and pose estimation in RGB-D images. The system is able to recognize many objects at once, disregarding whether they belong to one or many classes. Next to the detailed description of the principle of the system operation we present several off-line and on-line experiments validating the system, including verification in the task of picking up recognized objects with IRp-6 manipulator.


Detection and recognition of compound 3D models by hypothesis generation

1 Artur Wilkowski, 2Maciej Stefańczyk

1 Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP), 2Institute of Control and Computation Engineering,

Abstract: In the paper there is proposed an integrated object detection and recognition system, based on object description given in semantic form [5]. The objects are described in a generic way in terms of parts and relations between them. The Bayesian inference system is utilized, so each object detection and recognition score has probabilistic interpretation. There are designed basic 3D models founded on the inference framework. Object instances are then detected and recognized in real-world Kinect RGBD images.


Control of an electro-hydraulic manipulator by vision system using central point of a marker estimated via Kalman Filter

Piotr Owczarek, Jarosław Gośliński, Dominik Rybarczyk, Arkadiusz Kubacki

Poznan University of Technology,,,

Abstract: In the paper, the vision system for control a electro-hydraulic manipulator is presented. The authors have proposed a Kalman Filter (KF) to estimate a central position of markers. Two different methods of initial estimation of markers position are used. First one is based on central point of marker’s mass. Second refers to a circle fitting method of binary object. These two methods theoretically give the same position of a central point of given marker, however, in case of image distortion results will have different errors. This can occur when operator is holding marker in a hand, and cover some parts of it. Therefore it is important to develop new robust method for marker tracking. Authors proposed Kalman Filter to estimate central point of a marker by making a fusion of information provided by two initial estimation methods. The conducted research proved that KF reduces total manipulator’s control error even in situation where 30% of marker area is invisible.


The comparison of keypoint detectors and descriptors for registration of RGB-D data

Aleksander Kostusiak

Poznan University of Technology

Abstract: In many computer vision tasks it is almost impossible to process all data from camera in a reasonable amount of time. Because of that, only a subset of this data is typically used, which is defined by interest points. In this paper we present a comparison of some popular keypoint detector/descriptor pairs in the context of frame-to-frame trajectory estimation (visual odometry) on RGB-D data. We focus on recently introduced keypoint detection and description algorithms. In the test application the unavoidable trajectory drift is not compensated, e.g. by a graph-based back-end. Thus, one can directly see how different approaches to determine the location of keypoints influence the quality of the recovered trajectory. The presented system uses a publicly available RGB-D dataset and applies well-established metrics to assess the quality of the trajectories.


Application of SURF algorithm for real-time estimation of angle and central point of a tracked object

Łukasz Sawicki, Arkadiusz Kubacki, Piotr Owczarek

Poznan University of Technology,,

Abstract: In the paper a using of 2D color camera and a program based on the Speeded-Up Robust Features (SURF) algorithm was presented. The main aim of this article was to find influence of amount of tracked points on accuracy of position and angle tracking. Required data are obtained by finding corresponding key points between image captured from the camera and a reference image of the tracked object. The program has been written in C# with using of Emgu CV which is an image processing library.


Automated drawing recognition and reproduction with a multisensory robotic manipulation system

Anna Wujek, Tomasz Winiarski

Politechnika Warszawska,

Abstract: Article presents a multisensory robotic system, that is reproducing contour drawings. Initially the system detects a sheet of paper with a reference drawing, determines contours of the drawing, and then draws contour image on a blank sheet of paper. The reproduction conserves features of the original drawing – shapes, location and scale. The system was created with usage of an embodied agent theory. In this article two main parts of a designed system are presented – vision module (virtual receptor) and control subsystem. System is verified on a modified industrial manipulator acting as a service robot with an eye in hand camera and a force/torque sensor mounted in the wrist.


Incremental version space merging approach to 3D object model acquisition for robot vision

Jan Figat, Włodzimierz Kasprzak

Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Control and Computation Engineering,

Abstract: A concept learning algorithm is developed, which uses the visual information generated by a virtual receptor in a robotic system (e.g. symbolic image segments) to create learning examples. Its goal is to detect similarities in the training data and to create an appropriate object model. The version-space, intended to describe the possible concept hypotheses, is generated by a novel IVSM-ID algorithm, the incremental version space merging with imperfect data, that deals with partly imperfect and noisy training data – a common problem in computer vision systems. The generated model takes the form of a graph of constraints with fuzzy predicates. The approach is verified by learning concepts of elementary surface and solid primitives on base of segmented RGB-D images, taken for various light conditions and for different exposure times.


WUT Visual Perception Dataset – a dataset for registration and recognition of objects

1 Maciej Stefańczyk, 1Michał Laszkowski, 2Tomasz Kornuta

1 Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 2IBM Research, Almaden,,

Abstract: Modern robots are typically equipped with many sensors with different modalities, e.g. RGB cameras, Time-of-Flight cameras or RGB-D sensors. Thus development of universal, modality-independent algorithms require appropriate datasets and benchmarks. In this paper we present WUT Visual Perception Dataset, consisting of five datasets, captured with different sensors with the goal of development, comparison and evaluation of algorithms for automatic object model registration and object recognition.


Hypothesis generation in generic, model-based object recognition system

1 Maciej Stefańczyk, 2Rafał Pietruch

1 Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 2Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP),

Abstract: One of the key problems in robotics is ability to search and recognize objects, as well as their reliable localization. Existing object-detection solutions relies either on instance-models, making them unable to generalize, or can’t estimate object pose if the model is not known at hand. We aim at making system able to work with generic models, described using set of simple parts and relations between them, as well as localize them on scene. Article presents hypothesis generation part of the designed system.


Reasoning with four-valued logic in multi-robotic search-and-rescue problem

1 Lukasz Bialek, 2Jacek Szklarski, 2Marta M. Borkowska, 3Michal Gnatowski

1 Faculty of Mathematics, Informatics and Mechanics, University of Warsaw, 2Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences (IPPT PAN), 3Former employee of IPPT PAN,,,

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present application of non-standard logic in the process of reasoning regarding the state of environment in a multi-robotic system. We have investigated the possibility that the usage of four-valued logic can serve as an alternative to the traditional probabilistic approach when handling the uncertainties. As a proof of concept, we have considered a typical search-and-rescue scenario in which a group of n robots performs a search for k victims localized in random positions in an initially unknown building. The building is represented in the form of a graph while the uncertainties are modeled by parameters denoting probabilities of victim observation and random blocking of a robot transition between neighboring nodes (which precludes the possibility for the robot to know anything about the actual graph structure with full confidence). The simulation results show that the unique features of applied reasoning language give significant improvement over typical approaches based on the two-valued logic. The results have a preliminary character, in the sense that up to now, only numerical experiments have been performed – applying the idea in a real multi-robotic system is currently underway.


Setup for stereovision simulation for mutual navigation of satellites formation

1 Paweł Nowak, 1Robert Ugodziński, 2Roman Szewczyk, 1Marcin Kamiński, 2Michał Nowicki, 2Maciej Kachniarz

1 Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP), 2Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology,,,,,

Abstract: Paper presents foundation of newly developed setup for stereovision simulation. Described system will be used for verification of different algorithms of mutual navigation for satellites formation. Designed setup contains image display system, remote vison system and image processing system. In paper hardware and software parts of all systems are described. Current state of setup development as well as future actions are presented. Setup utilization for its own calibration is described.


Visual marker based shape recognition system for continuum manipulators

Fraś Jan, Sebastian Tabaka, Jan Czarnowski

Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP),,

Abstract: Soft robotics is young and popular research area. Continuum robots do not have traditional joints and their movemet is generated by smooth deformation of their body. They are made of flexible materials which results in very complex shapes they can take. Due to complex kinematics and soft materials they are composed of, soft manipulator sensing is very demanding issue. Despite a number of custom sensors that have been proposed, data gathered by them is not sufficient for effective shape reconstruction. In this paper authors propose a system that enables efficient shape reconstruction for soft pneumatic manipulator. System is based on custom physical model and vision system composed of video camera and two-dimensional optical markers.


New Trends in the Use of Robotic Devices in Motor Rehabilitation of Upper Limbs

1 Marcin Bonikowski, 2Mikulas Hajduk, 2Lucia Koukolova, 3Wojciech J. Klimasara, 1Patrycja Mrozek, 3Zbigniew Pilat

1 Mazovian Neuropsychiatry Center, 2Technical University of Košice, 3Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP),,,,,

Abstract: In the years to come, robotic systems assisting physical rehabilitation will be used mainly by elderly, disabled, as well as children and adults after accidents and disorders limiting their physical capabilities. As the population is getting older, the issue becomes more and more critical. A growing number of people requiring rehabilitation generates significant costs, of which personal expenses are a major component. Providing the human personnel with appropriate mechatronic devices or replacing at least some rehabilitation medicine specialists with robots could reduce physical and mental workload of physicians. Broader application of such devices will also require among others new solutions in mechanic, control and human-robot communication. This paper presents overall vision of the development of rehabilitation robots, with consideration of the observed trends in this area, as well as expected achievements in electronics, material’s engineering, ICT and other related fields of science and technology.


Survey of Turning Systems Used in Lower Extremity Exoskeletons

Dymitr Osiński, Danuta Jasińska-Choromańska

Warsaw University of Technology,

Abstract: The paper presents a survey of kinematics of exoskeletons clasping the lower limbs, which enable realization of motion not only within the sagittal plane, but in coronal and transverse planes as well. The emphasis is put on the ways of realizing the turn. The survey is supported by kinematic schemes of the described designs. Appropriate solutions have been compared, indicating their advantages and disadvantages. The survey will be helpful while choosing the way of realizing the turn in the ‘Veni-Prometheus’ System for Verticalization and Aiding Motion.


Fast grasp learning for novel objects

Dawid Seredyński, Wojciech Szynkiewicz

Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology,

Abstract: This paper presents a method for fast learning of dexterous grasps for unknown objects. We use two probabilistic models of each grasp type learned from a single demonstrated grasp example to generate many grasp candidates for new objects with unknown shapes. These models encode probability density functions representing relationship between fingers and object local features, and whole hand configuration that is particular to a grasp example, respectively. Both, in the training and in the grasp generation stage we use an incomplete 3D point cloud from a depth sensor. The results of simulation experiments performed with the BarrettHand gripper and several objects of different shapes indicate that the proposed learning approach is applicable in realistic scenarios.


Performance of coaxial propulsion in design of multi-rotor UAVs

Adam Bondyra, Stanisław Gardecki, Przemysław Gąsior, Wojciech Giernacki

Poznan University of Technology,,,

Abstract: There are many different types of propulsion systems developed for multi rotor UAVs. One of the most interesting designs is so called X8 quadrocopter, which extends original quadrotor concept to 8 motors, arranged in 4 coaxial pairs. The advantage of this solution is increased lift of platform, with reasonable volume of platform kept. However, this design suffers from the loss of efficiency due to coaxial propellers’ configuration, because the lower propeller loses thrust working in prop wash of upper propeller. This paper presents the experimental verification of performance of such propulsion system in practical terms of designing multi rotor platforms, comparing to design with 8 isolated propulsion units. In addition, its advantages versus classic quadrotor concept is shown. The series of experiments with different motors and sizes of propellers were conducted to estimate efficiency of coaxial propulsion regarding useful thrust generated by each configuration.


Prediction-based visual servo control

Michał Walęcki, Cezary Zieliński

Warsaw University of Technology,

Abstract: In service robotics manipulator trajectories must be generated on the run, basing on the information gathered by sensors. This article discusses visual servoing applied to robot arm control, in a task of following a moving object with robot arm. The paper proposes a control system structure based on adaptive Kalman filter prediction algorithm and manipulator joint trajectory generator. Moreover, it shows how to build it using agent-based approach.


Fast Self-Collision Detection Method for Walking Robots

Tomasz Augustyn, Dominik Belter

Poznan University of Technology,

Abstract: The paper presents fast collision detection method for walking robots. In the paper we present the module which uses triangle mesh of the robot to detect collisions between parts of the robot. To this end, the triangle to triangle intersection test is applied. To speed up the computation the bounding box test is carried out at the beginning. We show the properties and performance of the collision detection module. Then, we propose the method which uses Gaussian mixture to determine self-collision model. The method is significantly faster than the method which uses triangle meshes but less precise. The collision detection methods can be applied during motion planning as well as during execution of the planned motion to detect infeasible configurations of the robot.


Nao robot navigation system structure development in an agent-based architecture of the RAPP platform

Wojciech Dudek, Wojciech Szynkiewicz, Tomasz Winiarski

Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology,,

Abstract: This paper focuses on the development of a navigation system structure for the Nao humanoid robot in an agent-oriented distributed architecture. The proposed navigation system is a part of the RAPP framework, a cloud based robotics platform. The RAPP framework is an open-source software platform to support the creation and delivery of robotic applications, which are expected to increase the versatility and utility of robots. All navigation tasks are defined and divided into separate components. The robot navigation system consists of a relative localisation based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) using both IMU and odometry measurements, visual QR-code based global localization, path planning, and motion control components. A proper allocation of navigation components, in the four-agent structure of the RAPP platform, is the main goal of this work. Navigation system components are implemented using Robot Operating System and Nao robot programming framework NAOqi. Experimental results for the Nao robot are presented to show the validity of the proposed approach.


Navigation for satellites

Mariusz Jacewicz, Robert Głębocki

Warsaw University of Technology,

Abstract: Navigation is a main challenge for the operation of an autonomous satellite. This paper deals with the problem of pose estimation for real-time vision based navigation system. Presented method is able to estimate the target pose with high accuracy and does not require any landmark on the object. The results of numerical simulation were presented. The delays introduced by guidance system into the control system of an active satellite were tested. Experimental results showed that the proposed method of navigation introduced a small delay in the control system. Created system is also robust to occlusions and light variations in space. The approach will be further evaluated and tested in the continued work


Autonomous Agricultural Robot – Conception of Inertial Navigation System

1 Marcin Jasiński, 1Jędrzej Mączak, 1Stanisław Radkowski, 2Sebastian Korczak, 3Roman Rogacki, 3 Jarosław Mac, 3Jan Szczepaniak

1 Institute of Vehicles, Warsaw University of Technology, 2Institute of Machine Design Fundamentals, Warsaw University of Technology, 3 Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering in Poznan,,,,,,

Abstract: The aim of the paper was to propose conception of autonomous robot for sowing and wide row planting. Autonomous work of the robot in range of traction and agronomic processes will be implemented on the basis of data from a many sensors (cameras, position and distance. Positive test results will allow for the use of the robot in organic crops requiring mechanical removal of weeds or in crops with application of selective liquid agrochemicals limited to the minimum. Until control systems can be perfected and development cost recouped, the growth in autonomous field production systems will come in fits to starts. So that very important is mentioned in this paper, inertial navigation system.


Evaluating Map-based RGB-D SLAM on an Autonomous Walking Robot

Dominik Belter, Michal Nowicki, Piotr Skrzypczynski

Poznan University of Technology,,

Abstract: This paper demonstrates an application of a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping algorithm to localize a six-legged robot using data from a compact RGB-D sensor. The algorithm employs a new concept of combining fast Visual Odometry to track the sensor motion, and a map of 3-D point features and robot poses, which is then optimized. The focus of the paper is on evaluating the presented approach on a real walking robot under supervision of a motion registration system that provides ground truth trajectories. We evaluate the accuracy of the estimated robot trajectories applying the well-established methodologies of Relative Pose Error and Absolute Trajectory Error, and investigate the causes of accuracy degradation when the RGB-D camera is carried by a walking robot. Moreover, we demonstrate that the accuracy of robot poses is sufficient for dense environment mapping in 3-D.


Modern Sensors in Mobile Robot Teleoperation

Tomasz Pachana, Radosław Trzcionkowski, Wojciech Turek

AGH University of Science and Technology,,

Abstract: Fast development of sensing devices able to collect data about human actions creates new possibilities for building robot teleooperation interfaces. The devices for capturing gestures, movements or even thoughts can replace joysticks and buttons and simplify expressing decisions. In this paper a series of experiments is presented which involve testing four different interfaces in the task of controlling a mobile robot with manipulator. Results of the experiments, which involved ten volunteers, show that use of modern sensing devices can improve efficiency and intuitiveness of teleoperation.


Performance of feedback linearization based control of bicycle robot in consideration of model inaccuracy

Joanna Zietkiewicz, Adam Owczarkowski, Dariusz Horla

Poznan University of Technology,,

Abstract: This paper considers the influence of model inaccuracy on control performance when feedback linearization is used. For this purpose we use plant of bicycle robot. The problem is analysed in two ways: by simulations with artificially changed parameters and by comparison of simulated data with the results obtained from the real object. The collected data show that, even if the model differs from the real object, control method provides good results. This indicates that feedback linearization, method strongly relying on model, can be successfully used for some real plants.


Robust Actuator Fault-Tolerant LQR Control of Unmanned Bicycle Robot. A Feedback Linearization Approach

Joanna Zietkiewicz, Dariusz Horla, Adam Owczarkowski

Poznan University of Technology,,

Abstract: Robust control must be able to cope with various system behavior subject to mismodeling and able to assure some performance level. In the paper, we propose to use actuator fault-tolerant control law to stabilize a bicycle robot model with inertial wheel to take into account the unmodeled uncertainty introduced by using linearized model in a LQR fashion with feedback linearization. Our proposal is illustrated by signal plots and performance indexes’ values obtained from a set of experiments and is a natural extension of the results presented in the past.


Robot system design procedure based on a formal specification

Cezary Zieliński, Maksym Figat

Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Control and Computation Engineering,

Abstract: This paper presents a~robot control system design procedure based on a~formal specification. The specification describes both the structure and the activities of a~robot system in a~formal manner. Using this specification the code of the robot system controller can be produced. The paper shows how. Moreover it has been shown that the complexity of the robot control system is concentrated in two of its elements: transition functions and the structure of the FSM. The reduction of the complexity of transition functions simultaneously increases the number of states of the FSM and vice versa, so it is up to the designer of the system to choose the adequate complexity level of this pair.


Selected aspects of automatic maneuver control to avoid moving obstacles resulting from the simulation analysis of the course of aircraft movement

Jerzy Graffstein

Institute of Aviation

Abstract: The article is focused on the results of analysis aimed at selected variables, which are found to be important for the automatic flight control in case of passing by a moving obstacle. Desired values of state variables, significant for the run of automatically controlled evasive manoeuvre, are computed. The set of four control laws is proposed for selected object capable to perform manoeuvres from the considered class. The appropriate controller gain are computed to guarantee the fulfilment of criteria assumed for automatic control. Numerical flight simulations are completed to cover the aforementioned phases of evasive manoeuvre and selected scenarios of objects motion. The results obtained can be treated as the source of information opening the deeper insight into a behaviour of the controlled aircraft in case of known scenario of obstacle’s motion.


The concept of building a prototype of the mobile inspection platform dedicated for use in coal mines

1 Maciej Cader, 2Leszek Kasprzyczak

1 Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP), 2Instytut Technik Innowacyjnych EMAG,

Abstract: The article presents the results of a research project whose aim was to realize mobile platform inspection (MPI). MPI task is to monitor hazardous areas in underground coal mines. The article describes the concept of building a platform based on harmonized standards with the ATEX Directive.


A non integer order model of frequency speed control in AC motor

1 Krzysztof Oprzędkiewicz, 2Tomasz Kołacz

1 AGH, 2High Vocational School in Tarnów,

Abstract: In the paper new non integer order models for speed control in AC motor are proposed. The models have the form of hybrid transfer functions containing both integer order and non integer order parts. Parameters of models were assigned with the use of least square method. The proposed models were compared to integer order transfer function model with delay identified with the use of MTALAB. Results of experiments show that the proposed hybrid models containing fractional order part and integer order part are comparable in the sense of square cost function to reference integer order model and simultaneously they can be simpler to identify and their computational complexity is smaller than reference integer order model.


An estimation of accuracy of Oustaloup approximation

1 Krzysztof Oprzędkiewicz, 1Wojciech Mitkowski, 2Edyta Gawin

1 AGH University, 2High Vocational School in Tarnów,,

Abstract: In the paper a new accuracy estimation method for Oustaloup approximation is presented. Oustaloup approximation is a fundamental tool to describe fractional-order systems with the use of integer-order, proper transfer function. The accuracy of approximation can be estimated via comparison of impulse responses for plant and Oustaloup approximation. The impulse response of the plant was calculated with the use of an accurate analytical formula and it can be interpreted as a standard. Approach presented in the paper can be applied to effective tuning of Oustaloup approximant for given application (for example in FO PID controller). The use of proposed method does not require us to know time response of a modeled controller. The proposed methodology can be easily generalized to another known approximations. Results of simulations show that the good performance of approximation is reached for low order and narrow angular frequency range.


Descriptor fractional discrete-time linear system and its solution – comparison of three different methods

Lukasz Sajewski

Bialystok University of Technology

Abstract: Descriptor fractional discrete-time linear systems are addressed. Three different methods for finding the solution to the state equation of the de-scriptor fractional linear system are considered. The methods are based on: Shuffle algorithm, Drazin inverse of the matrices and Weierstrass-Kronecker decomposition theorem. Effectiveness of the methods is demonstrated on simple numerical example.


Existence of Metzler matrices with given spectra of positive stable linear systems and electrical circuits

Tadeusz Kaczorek

Bialystok University of Technology

Abstract: The problem of existence of Metzler matrices with given spectra is addressed for positive stable continuous-time linear systems and electrical circuits. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the Metzler matrices are established. It is shown that positive and stable electrical circuits have real eigenvalues. An open problem for positive electrical circuits is formulated. The considerations are illustrated by numerical examples of linear systems and positive electrical circuits.


Reachability of standard and fractional continuous-time systems with piecewise constant inputs

Krzysztof Rogowski

Bialystok University of Technology

Abstract: The reachability of standard and fractional-order continuous-time systems with piecewise constant inputs is addressed. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such constant inputs that steers the system from zero initial conditions to the given final state in desired time are derived and proved. As an example of such systems the electrical circuits with DC switched voltage sources are presented.


Existence of system matrices with given spectra of positive stable discrete-time linear systems

Tadeusz Kaczorek, Kamil Borawski

Bialystok University of Technology,

Abstract: The problem of existence of system matrices with given spectra is addressed for positive stable discrete-time linear systems. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the system matrices are established. The considerations are illustrated by numerical examples of discrete-time linear systems.


Practical aspects of Hammerstein models for nonstationary and nonlinear processes

Karol Koniuszewski, Paweł Domański

Institute of Control and Computational Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology,

Abstract: Practical experience shows that in real modeling situations an engineer has to cope with several issues associated with non-stationary behavior, nonlinearities, data deficiencies and identification process limitations caused by technology. The paper presents observations and practical solutions developed in such a situation. The goal of the modeling is to derive nonlinear model that captures most of the process characteristics and can be a base for process simulations and further design of alternative control structures. The model under consideration is of Hammerstein type. Proposed modified structure covers process nonlinearities and has embedded self-adaptation mechanism enabling satisfactory operation in non-stationary environment.


Gradient approach to curve fitting with incomplete data

Karol Koniuszewski, Paweł Domański

Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology,

Abstract: The paper deals with the problem of nonlinear curve fitting in situation of incomplete data. Research was motivated by the industrial identification of Hammerstein models. It was noticed that for the model robustness and quality the fitness of the static nonlinear element is much more crucial then efficiency of dynamic operation of linear part. Industrial data are incomplete, i.e. they do not cover the whole process domain. It is due to the operation around selected steady states, close loop operation, extensive manual model use, etc. In case of multi-regional approach we often get regions with no data. Proposed methodology is addressing that issue. Included results are for both simulation and real industrial case.


Shooting methods to solve optimal control problems with state and mixed control-state constraints

Andrzej Karbowski

Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology

Abstract: The paper presents two important approaches to solve numerically general optimal control problems with state and mixed control-state constraints. They may be attractive in the case, when the simple time discretization of the state equations and expressing the optimal control problem as a nonlinear mathematical programming problem is not sufficient. At the beginning an extension of the optimal control theory to problems with constraints on current state and on current state and control simultaneously is presented. Then two approaches to solve numerically the emerging boundary value problems: indirect and direct shooting method are described and applied to an example problem.


Classes of digraph structures corresponding to characteristic polynomials

1 Krzysztof Hryniów, 2Konrad Markowski

1 Warsaw University of Technology, 2Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, ISEP,

Abstract: This paper introduces the first classification of digraph structures corresponding to characteristic polynomials. It was found that digraph structures created can be divided into three classes with different feasibility for different polynomials — only structures of one class are found to be independent from wages of polynomial’s terms. In this paper classification of structures is described, along with method how to divide them and illustrated with examples.


Realisation of Positive Continuous-Time Linear Systems Consisting of n Subsystems with Different Fractional Order

Konrad Markowski

Warsaw Uniwersity of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, ISEP

Abstract: This paper presents a method for finding positive realisation of the continuous-time linear system consisting of n subsystems with different fractional orders. For the proposed method, a digraph-based algorithm was constructed. In this paper, we have shown how we can realise the transfer matrix which can be also stable. The proposed method was discussed and illustrated with some numerical examples.


Output Constraint Handling in Analytical MPC Algorithms Based on Hammerstein Models with Presumed Trajectory of Future Control Changes

Piotr Marusak

Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology

Abstract: Novel numerically efficient, analytical MPC algorithms based on Hammerstein (nonlinear) models are proposed in the paper. They use the idea consisting in the assumption that the shape of a trajectory of future changes of a control signal is presumed in advance. In the proposed algorithms it is relatively easy to take output constraints into consideration on the entire prediction horizon. Thus, the constraint handling is very efficient because the control action can be appropriately modified many sampling instants before the potential constraint violation can occur.


Multi-agent system for on-line game matchmaking

1 Dan Latocha, 2Piotr Arabas

1 Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 2NASK,

Abstract: The task of choosing players to form optimal games is formulated as a binary mathematical programing problem. An efficient heuristic is proposed and decomposed to build a multi-agent system. The quality of such a solution is compared with the quality of the exact one, found with the MILP solver. The scalability of the system is verified by numerical experiments.


System responsive to ICT security incidents in the LAN

Marian Wrzesień, Piotr Ryszawa

Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP),

Abstract: The system responsive to ICT security incidents in the LAN is presented. The system is implemented in the Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP, Poland. In everyday practice, while processing of information, it is necessary to deal with IT security incidents. They are single events or series of events related to the security of classified information. They threaten the confidentiality, availability and integrity of information. Implementation of the system required the following steps: choice of the sources of information based on which assessment of the level of threats will be carried out, definition of the method of analysis of data from the chosen sources of information, definition of a single, common storage of information about threats, realization of the feedback which will introduce modifications in the router in order to counteract threats. For the sources of information were selected: continuously recorded packet flows from CISCO router, information from RBL servers, web server logs and current behavior of LAN, observed by the system administrator. The methods of data analysis included: threat assessment based on the analysis of flows in the router, assessment of the level of threats based on a web server log analysis and assessment of risks in router and web server based on information from the RBL servers. For storage of data coming from sources of information, the MySQL database was used. The essence of feedback is a self-acting modification of Access Control List (ACL) on the CISCO router. As a result of the research work, the system was implemented which attempts to automatically remove LAN security threats.


Simulation-based design of mobile ad hoc network for tracking and monitoring

1 Piotr Bazydło, 2Ewa Niewiadomska-Szynkiewicz, 3Kamil Czerwiński, 2Patryk Rękawek

1 Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP), 2Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 3Emerson Process Management Power & Water Solutions, Warsaw,,,

Abstract: This paper addresses issues of the application of computer simulation to design a wireless network for tracking and monitoring purposes. The network is formed by mobile robots carrying sensors. To achieve a common goal it has to automatically adopt to changes in the environment and ensure the permanent connectivity with the central decision unit. The focus is on high coverage of given region of interest and motion trajectory planning avoiding obstacles. Two calculation schemes for computing target positions of robots, i.e., off-line (centralized) and on-line (distributed) are investigated. They employ different optimization algorithms to calculate the positions of robots. Simulators of two types of ad hoc networks for detecting, tracking and monitoring of a heavy gas cloud were implemented based on V-REP and MATLAB tools. The results of presented case studies illustrate the performance of simulation-based approach to ad hoc networks design. Advantages and disadvantages of different computing schemes and selected optimization methods are described and discussed.


Two- and Three-Layer Recurrent Elman Neural Networks as Models of Dynamic Processes

Antoni Wysocki, Maciej Ławrynczuk

Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology,

Abstract: The goal of paper is to study and compare the effectiveness of two- and three-layer Elman recurrent neural networks used for modelling of dynamic processes. Training of such networks is discussed. For a neutralisation reactor benchmark system it is shown that the rudimentary Elman structure with two layers is much better in terms of accuracy and the number of parameters. Furthermore, its training is much easier.


Evaluation of high efficiency operating rules for grate-fired boilers

Tomasz Janiuk, Paweł Domański

Institute of Control and Computation Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology,

Abstract: Synthesis of control rules (extraction of knowledge) from historical data may be used for optimal control of the pulverized coal boiler, however it appears to be quite a difficult task. The best effects, allowing fast design and reliable tuning, might be obtained through comprehensive approach with use of all available sources of information. Presented methodology covers one aspect: knowledge extraction through analysis of process operational historical data. Proposed methodology is specifically developed for the task: synthesis of the control rules and conditions for improvement of the combustion process efficiency based on the historical. The approach is stepwise. It starts from the historical data acquisition, followed by the efficiency calculations, data processing. The methodology ends with evaluation of the control rules that may suggest boiler operators optimal operation. This approach copes with several practical problems met during daily boiler operation. Proposed algorithm uses original combination of heuristics, polynomial approximation and data clustering to find patterns in scattered data allowing to assign operational rules to meet the goals. The approach is validated on the real data from the industrial grate boiler.


Research study of the micro cogeneration system with automatic loading unit

Adrian Chmielewski, Szymon Gontarz, Robert Gumiński, Jędrzej Mączak, Przemysław Szulim

Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Automotive and Construction Machinery Engineering,,,,

Abstract: This article presents the test bench research of a micro cogeneration system with the Stirling engine with an automatic loading system. The tests were conducted for nitrogen as a working gas. The work presents the influence of the load current on the change of the working gas pressure in the working chamber and on the changing voltage on the electric machine. A significant number of repetitions allowed for a statistical rendering of the research description with the use of such measures as: kurtosis, coefficient of variation, coefficient of asymmetry, and of the function of the probability density. The research allows for determining whether the conducted experiment is reproducible and how the chosen parameters influence the character of the system’s work.


Research on a micro cogeneration system with an automatic load-applying entity

Adrian Chmielewski, Szymon Gontarz, Robert Gumiński, Jędrzej Mączak, Przemysław Szulim

Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Automotive and Construction Machinery Engineering,,,,

Abstract: The article concerns the testbed research of a micro cogeneration system based on a Stirling engine equipped with an automatic load-applying system. The article presents the influence that the load current has on acceleration of vibration of a micro cogeneration system’s body. The research was conducted while using nitrogen as the working gas. Significant number of tests offered the possibility of providing the description of the results in statistical terms while using such measures as kurtosis, coefficient of variation, the asymmetry coefficient as well as the probability density function. The research offers the possibility of concluding whether the completed experiment is repeatable as well as for determining the impact that selected load changes have on acceleration of the micro cogeneration system’s vibration.


Structure and functionalities of ship autopilot simulator

Marcin Jamro, Dariusz Rzońca, Jan Sadolewski, Andrzej Stec, Zbigniew Świder, Bartosz Trybus, Leszek Trybus

Rzeszów University of Technology,,,,,,

Abstract: Heading control, track control, rate of turn and turn radius are basic maneuvers executed by ship autopilots. The paper presents structure and functionalities of an autopilot simulator, written in ST language in CPDev environment. It runs both on PC and on ARM-based controller for anticipated real-time tests. Sample results of ship dynamics identification through zig-zag maneuver and of wave filtering by an observer are presented. The simulator has been developed in cooperation with a Dutch company.


Low-cost Multifunction Controller Prototype for Sawmill Wood Processing

Bartosz Trybus, Mateusz Wietecha

Politechnika Rzeszowska,

Abstract: The paper presents concepts and implementation of a small multifunction controller. The device has been designed to control and monitor wood processing in a sawmill. It runs three control tasks simultaneously, namely climate control, drying control, surveillance system, and one HMI (Human-Machine Interface) task. CPDev environment has been used to develop programs in IEC 61131-3 LD, ST and SFC languages. Control algorithm of the drying process with SFC and ST is presented in more detail. CPDev virtual machine executes the tasks concurrently on the controller. Programmable graphical operator HMI created with the CPVis tool is also handled by the controller. The prototype employs the well-known Raspberry Pi 2 platform, reducing costs of the device.


A laboratory process for development of multivariable control algorithms

1 Andrzej Wojtulewicz, 2Patryk Chaber, 2Maciej Ławryńczuk

1 Politechnika Warszawska, EITI, IAiIS, 2Politechnika Warszawska, Wydział Elektroniki i Technik Informacyjnych,,

Abstract: The article describes the design and implementation of a laboratory test-bench which may be used to evaluate control algorithms. Mechanical and electronic details are presented. The software features that allow to control the test-bench are discussed. The test-bench is very flexible since it may be easily configured to act as a single-input single-output process and as a number of complicated multiple-input multiple-output processes. Existing possibilities of development of control algorithms implemented on embedded systems based on microprocessors, FPGAs and PLCs are discussed. Finally, an example implementation of a model predictive control algorithm on a microprocessor is detailed.


Exposure control algorithm for marker detection in robotic application

Mateusz Maciaś, Jakub Główka, Artur Kaczmarczyk, Paweł Solecki, Sebastian Tabaka

Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP),,, ,

Abstract: Fiducial markers are used in many applications like augmented reality or robotics. In this paper we try to improve marker detection in robotics application by implementing algorithm for controlling camera exposure. Method of measuring quality of marker is introduced. Exposure control algorithm is implemented and tested. Test results are analyzed.


Low-cost canoe counting system for application in a natural environment

Artur Wilkowski, Marcin Luckner

Warsaw University of Technology,

Abstract: This paper presents low-cost system for counting canoes and canoeists to control cannoning tourist routes. The created system was implemented on Raspberry Pi 2 and the total cost of the tracking device is less than 200$. The proposed algorithm uses background subtraction and Supported Vector Machines to track vessels and recognize canoes among them. The obtained results are rewarding as for low-cost solution. Depending on considered group of objects the accuracy of the algorithm reaches 84, 89.5, and 96 percent for canoes, vessels, and all objects respectively.


Concept Analysis and Development of an Innovative Remotely Controlled Portable Tyre Puncturing Device (R-TPD)

Agnieszka Sprońska, Adam Wołoszczuk, Paweł Sałek, Mateusz Maciaś, Jakub Główka

Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP),,,,

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present the concept development and demonstrator of a remotely controlled tyre puncturing device in the context of vehicle stopping and the EU 7th Framework Programme AEROCEPTOR project objectives. First, the general problem statement is presented, identifying major legal, ethical and technical issues, related to the project assumptions and the developed solution. Subsequently, the concept of a remotely controlled portable tyre puncturing device is introduced and described, from the early concept development up to current stage of a technology demonstrator at TRL6. Insight into construction of the device and its principle of operation, as well as brief summary of field tests results up-to-date are presented. Observations, conclusions, development trends and recommendations are described in the conclusions.


Multi-Camera Vision System for the Inspection of Metal Shafts

Piotr Garbacz, Tomasz Giesko

Institute for Sustainable Technologies – National Research Institute,

Abstract: To address the needs of the manufacturing industry, the automation of quality inspection processes is often performed. Ensuring the high reliability and accuracy of measurement usually requires the development of specialized systems dedicated for specific applications. In the paper, a multi-camera vision system developed for the automatic inspection of metal shafts in the automotive industry is presented. The novel solution of the inspection system is based on the application of a set of three cameras that allow the inspection of shafts in separated areas. The system enables the detection and recognition of the following features: thread, knurls, grooves, and measurements of the shaft length. The image processing is performed with the use of filtering, morphology operations (dilation and erosion), and edge detection. The two-dimensional Look-up Table has been created in order to calculate a correct shaft length considering perspective errors of lenses.


Detection of artefacts from the motion of the eyelids created during EEG research using artificial neural network

Arkadiusz Kubacki, Arkadiusz Jakubowski, Łukasz Sawicki

Poznan University of Technology,,

Abstract: This article shows the results of the work on the system to recognize artefacts during the EEG research. The focus is on recognizing only one but the most common artefact which is eyes blinking. Recognition was used six artificial neural networks with 1, 2, 5, 10, 100 and 1000 hidden layers. For its learn were used 16765 samples. This article is based on Emotiv EPOC+ system and the MATLAB environment.


Design of Control System for an Electrohydraulic Drive Based on the Valve with PMSM Motor

Dominik Rybarczyk, Piotr Owczarek, Arkadiusz Kubacki

Poznan University of Technology,,

Abstract: The article describes design of control system and test stand for an electrohydraulic drive based on the new kind proportional valve with synchronous motor type PMSM (Permanent Magnets Synchronous Motor). In the second part, the chosen laboratory investigations of proposed valve with PMSM are presented. The study included the test of the basic characteristics of the drive such as step response and temperature of oil impact.


Electrohydraulic Valve with Two Stepping Motors

Andrzej Milecki, Jarosław Ortmann

Poznan University of Technology,

Abstract: The article describes the design of electrohydraulic valve with two stepping motors working differentially. The valve changes the flow proportionally to the sum of the motors steps. In the paper the application of this valve in a drive is presented and investigations results are shown. This results are com-pared with results obtained when only one motor is used, showing that the proposed new solution with two motors is significantly better.


Controlling the direction of rotation of the motor using brain waves via Ethernet POWERLINK protocol

Arkadiusz Kubacki, Arkadiusz Jakubowski, Dominik Rybarczyk, Piotr Owczarek

Poznan University of Technology,,,

Abstract: The paper presents preliminary results of the work with the Emotiv EPOC+™ system, which enabled in binary way control of objects. The system reads the brain waves from 14 plus 2 references electrodes. The controlled object was stepper motor with encoder released by the B&R company. For communication between the PC and engine control module was used Ethernet POWERLINK protocol, which allows data transfer with a minimum cycle time of 200 μs. Completely omitted PLC controller, which function was taken over the PC.


Power Factor Correction with ARM cortex-M4 processor

1 Kristian Gasparini, 2Wojciech Giernacki, 1Sasa Sladic

1 University of Rijeka, 2Poznan University of Technology,,

Abstract: ARM cortex-M4 processors family appeared in year 2006 and since than becomes a most common processor family used in mobile phone applications and other appliances including personal computers, televisions, photocopiers and similar. In this article it has been used in order to obtain efficient power factor correction (PFC). It was tested modified average current method with modification in sense of histeresis, in sense of current sensor and in sense of driver in order to decrease operating voltage and to increase efficiency for low power, low speed wind power generation systems. A simulation and practical results were presented.


Concept and Design of New Type Valve with Helix Type Spool

Dominik Rybarczyk, Czesław Jermak

Poznan University of Technology,

Abstract: The paper presents the design of new kind of electrohydraulic valve with helix type rotary spool. First part, provides a literature overview concerning on the construction of the hydraulic valves. Then, Authors present a pair of spool works principle of a new type valve. Finally, basic equations describing the valve are formulated and its simulation model is implemented in MATLAB-Simulink environment. The valve flow characteristics are collected from the model.


Piezoelectric gravimeter of the aviation gravimetric system

1 Igor Korobiichuk, 2Olena Bezvesilna, 1Roman Szewczyk, 1Michał Nowicki

1 Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP), 2National Technical University of Ukraine “Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”,,,

Abstract: In the article the functional schema of the aviation gravimetric system is reviewed, its structure and the possibility of using the piezoelectric sensor as the gravimeter is analyzed, the options for installing and fixing the piezo-electric gravimeter of the aviation gravimetric system are presented.


Anisotropic vector Preisach model of domain rotation and domain wall movement

1 Piotr Frydrych, 1Roman Szewczyk, 2Michał Nowicki

1 Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 2Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP),,

Abstract: Developed two dimensional Preisach model enables simulation of material magnetization vector for different angles. Model includes anisotropy and simulates magnetization value in every direction, not only the mean magnetization vector. Model is based on collection of Preisach planes which describe material state in different angles. Implementation of two magnetization mechanisms: domain wall movement and domain rotation opens possibility to complete description of distribution of magnetization values and angles. Model shows changes in direction of material magnetization for different magnetic field, material magnetization and angle between magnetic field and easy axis.


Test stand for measuring magnetostriction phenomena under external mechanical stress with foil strain gauges

1 Oskar Ginko, 1Andrzej Juś, 2Roman Szewczyk

1 Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP), 2Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechatronics,,

Abstract: In this paper developed test stand for measuring magnetostriction deformation under external mechanical stress is presented. Magnetostriciton phenomena is usually undesired, but there are applications which uses this phenomena in purpose for example to generate acoustic wave. In both cases complex approach and knowledge of magnetostriction factor λ in different material tensions are important. Usage of precision strain gauge, 24-bit analog to digital converter and digital signal processing allowed to achieve high resolution and accurate measurements of magnetostriction. All this also gives opportunity to measure small values of magnetostricion factors which are in materials like construction steels.


Assessment of graphene coatings influence on tribological properties of surfaces

1 Tadeusz Missala, 1Roman Szewczyk, 1Wojciech Winiarski, 1Marek Hamela, 1Marcin Kamiński, 1Andrzej Juś, 2Jan Tomasik, 2Michał Nowicki, 3Iwona Pasternak

1 Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP), 2Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 3Institute of Electronic Materials Technology,,,,,,,,

Abstract: This paper presents results of experiments carried out to determine influence of graphene coating on tribological properties of surfaces of friction pairs. Within these experiments series of 24 hour tribological tests of sliding friction between examined surfaces on specially designed measuring stand were conducted. Subject of study in these tests were electrolytic copper plated steel samples, additionally covered with graphene and, as a reference, identically prepared samples without the graphene layer. As a result of these experiments characteristics of coefficient of friction and temperature between surfaces, as well as changes in mass and roughness before and after tests were obtained. Based on these results improvement of tribological properties of sliding surfaces was shown.


Research of metal film resistor’s temperature stability according to their nominal wattage

1 Andrzej Juś, 1Paweł Nowak, 2Roman Szewczyk, 3Weronika Radzikowska-Juś

1 Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP), 2Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechatronics, 3 Military University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy,,,

Abstract: Paper presents the results of tests of temperature characteristics of resistors according to their nominal wattage. Object of the study are cheap, popular metal film resistors of the same type and producer in the wattage range 0.4-2W. There is a possibility of selecting some of those resistors and using them as a current-voltage converters. In such application resistors are supposed to work in a wide range of temperatures, which can significantly change their values. So the influence of nominal wattage on temperature stability of resistors was checked. The study was conducted on high resolution test stand.


Automated system for testing ferromagnetic materials

1 Michał Urbański, 2Tomasz Charubin, 2Paweł Rozum, 1Michał Nowicki, 2Roman Szewczyk

1 Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP), 2Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, , ,,

Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present an automated measuring station for ferromagnetic materials testing. The system is able to obtain full characteristics for magnetoelastic crystal magnetics, ceramic magnetics and amorphous magnetics. The paper presents the setup for measuring station and the process of obtaining measurement data for sample material. The results were analyzed and compared with material manufacturer’s datasheet.


Propagation of distributions versus law of uncertainty propagation

Paweł Fotowicz

Główny Urząd Miar

Abstract: Basic methods for calculating a measurement uncertainty are presented. One method is based on the approach called the propagation of distributions, and the second method is based on the approach called the law of uncertainty propagation. The methods give not the same calculation result in evaluation of standard uncertainty associated with the measurand. The reasons for these discrepancies are explained.


Server Power Consumption: Measurements and Modeling with MSRs

Piotr Arabas, Michał Karpowicz


Abstract: Precise model of power consumption is crucial for the design of controllers improving energy effectiveness of servers. This paper shows how the power usage statistics available via processor registers may be correlated to the total power consumption measurements of servers performing different types of operations. Identification of such relations may support development of power consumption models and application specific energy-aware server controllers.


Primary standard of electrolytic conductivity based on the AC four electrode cell

1 Alexander Mikhal, 2Zygmunt Warsza, 3Vladimir Gavrylkin

1 National Academy of Science of Ukraine (NANU), 2Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP), 3 Ukrmetrteststandard,,

Abstract: The principle of operation and metrological model of the Ukrainian primary standard of electrolytic conductivity (EC) is presented. Its original construction is based on the four electrode conductivity cell. The equations for calculating the cell constant from its dimensions, and the budget of the type B uncertainty from estimated unknown systematic errors are given. Methods: how to minimize these errors and the uncertainty are proposed and implemented. Obtained results are given and successfully verified in International Key Comparisons.


Experimental definition of compressive stiffness of cotton flock

1 Vytautas Bucinskas, 1Nikolaj Sesok, 1Andzela Sesok, 1Igor Iljin, 1Ernestas Sutinys, 1Rimantas Subacius, 1Gintautas Bureika, 2Zygmunt Warsza

1 Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP),,,,,,,

Abstract: Definition of Young’s modulus for majority of materials is the routine operation. In case of materials with low stiffness this task requires special procedure and sophisticated machinery. Cotton flock is the case, where compressive stiffness of cotton flock is so small for direct measurement, so one of possible solution is proposed indirect method of its definition. Recently cotton processing industry uses dynamic methods of cotton cleaning, therefore it is required to know compressive stiffness of cotton flock in order to optimize vibration parameters of device and adjust them to current status of cleaning material. Real compression stiffness of cotton depends on many factors, so in this paper is made an attempt to create simple method of compressive stiffness definition, which can be applied in simple workshop. Paper contains initial assumptions, mathematical derivations of final formula, methodology of experimental research and results.


Semi-parametric estimation of the change-point of parameters of non-Gaussian sequences by polynomial maximization method

1 Serhii Zabolotnii, 2Zygmunt Warsza

1 Cherkasy State Technological University, 2Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP),

Abstract: This paper deals with application of the maximization method in the synthesis of polynomial adaptive algorithms for a posteriori estimation of the change-point of the mean value or variance of random non-Gaussian sequences. Statistical simulation shows a significant increase in the accuracy of polynomial estimates, which is achieved by taking into account the non-Gaussian character of statistical data.


Methodology of reduction of the offset voltage in Hall-effect sensors

1 Maciej Kachniarz, 1Oleg Petruk, 2Roman Szewczyk

1 Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP), 2Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology,,

Abstract: The paper presents new, original methodology of reduction of the offset voltage in Hall-effect sensors. The outline of innovative Hall-effect sensor with five electrical pins for each electrode is presented. Such a construction creates a possibility to use different combinations of pins in order to find minimum value of the offset voltage. The procedure of searching for the best combination of pins connected for minimization of the value of offset voltage is also presented. For practical implementation of the methodology, special experimental system was developed, utilizing system of relays controlled by Data Acquisition Card to set different combinations of pins and search for the minimum value of the offset voltage. Obtained results indicate that there is a possibility to reduce value of the offset voltage even up to one hundred times.


Validation of the model of anhysteretic magnetisation curve of isotropic soft magnetic materials

Roman Szewczyk, Michał Nowicki

Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP),

Abstract: Anhysteretic magnetization curve is the fundamental concept for Jiles-Atheton model of magnetic hysteresis loop. However, this connection between anhysteretic magnetization curve parameters and physical parameters of soft magnetic materials is not obvious. Paper presents the attempt to validate the parameters of anhysteretic magnetization curve for soft magnetic materials – soft Mn-Zn ferrites. On the base of experimental measurements of saturated magnetic hysteresis loops, the parameters of Jiles-Atherton model of anhysteretic magnetization curve were calculated. Parameters were also analysed from the point of view of connection with microscopic parameters of Mn-Zn ferrite structure.


Issues and problems with measuring the temperature in the hive.

1 Jerzy Niewiatowski, 1Wojciech Winiarski, 1Paweł Nowak, 2Grażyna Topolska, 2Urszula Grzęda, 3 Michał Gałek

1 Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP), 2Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), 3Beekeeper,,,,,

Abstract: Currently developed setups for measurement of the parameters of the inside of the hive are based on Internet network, which allows simple data acquisition from the distributed measurement points. Those setups does not focus on measurement methodology and commonly utilize temperature sensors hanging inside bee space inside the hive or sensors boxes placed on frames. This results with disruption inside the nest and does influence bees behavior. Acquired data are not reliable, because the measured phenomena was significantly influenced by measurement process. There are weak links to experts knowledge, which connects measurement results with the cause of the phenomenon, which is required to diagnose state of the bee colony and thus facilitate beekeepers work. To fulfill that demand in Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP measurements system of hive temperature was developed. Described system will increase efficiency of beekeepers work by utilization of the expertise database and due to development of measurement device which will not influence bee behavior.


Project and simulation of a portable device for measuring bioelectrical signals from the brain for states of consciouness verification with visualization on LEDs

Szczepan Paszkiel, Wojciech Hunek, Andrew Shylenko

Politechnika Opolska,,

Abstract: This paper introduces a design of low cost, portable and simple brain computer interface device. Proposed prototype is dedicated to creating a control signal depending on the selected states of users consciousness. RGB LED is used to visualize mind states of a human subject based on generated control signals. Paper consists of documentation and simulation for EEG analog frond-end together with key concepts and structure of the Arduino-based digital side. Different aspects of BCI process flow are considered, such as: electrodes types and designs, EEG signal noise and filtering approaches, brain patterns classification problem.


Method to improve accuracy of the chromatography mass spectrometry analysis

1 Adam Idzkowski, 2Eugenij Volodarsky, 3Zygmunt Warsza, 4Larysa Kosheva

1 Bialystok University of Technology, 2National Technical University of Ukraine “KPI”, 3Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP), 4National Aviation University of Ukraine,,,

Abstract: The structural-algorithmic methods for improving the accuracy of quantitative chemical analysis are discussed. It is realized with the use of chromatography mass spectrometry measuring system. The idea is presented to exclude the influence of uncertainty at the stage of sample preparation. That allows, for the directly calibrated mass spectrometer, to assess the dispersion and to determine the overall uncertainty of analysis. Considerations are illustrated by numerical example with calibration at five points in a measuring range.


Method of improving accuracy of measurement of the acoustic pulses time-of-flight based on linear modulation of period

1 Mykhaylo Dorozhovets, 2Olha Zahurska, 3Zygmunt Warsza

1 Rzeszow University of Technology, 2National University Lviv Polytechnic, 3Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP),,

Abstract: In this paper the main problems that appear in measurement of time-of-flight intervals in acoustic tomography are analyzed. They are related to the influence of noise and with a limited slew rate of the signal amplitude envelope. The method based on linear modulation of the acoustic pulses period is proposed. Correction of directly measured time interval is based on the additional measurement of duration of the given number of half periods of received signal when the signal envelope is stabilized at a sufficient level. The efficiency of proposed method of correction is investigated by simulation.