March 7-8, 2023 – Łukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements (PIAP).
3 keynote talks and 40 regular papers in 3 topic sessions.
Titles and abstracts of the papers ordered by topic session are presented below.

Hierarchical Petri net Metamodel Utilised in the Design of Robotic Systems
Cezary Zielinski, Maksym Figat
Warsaw University of Technology,
Abstract: A model-based approach to developing robotic system controllers is presented. This approach relies on a parameterised meta-model. It describes the any robotic system taking into account both: its structure and its activities. The parameters define specific elements of the structure of the designed system and algorithms governing their actions, specifically tasks alloted to them. The definition of the parameters converts the meta-model into the specification of the model of a particular system. The meta-model is expressed using the Robotic System Hierarchical Petri Net (RSHPN), a 6-layer Petri net tailored to robotics. Each layer describes the activity of the robotic system at a different level of abstraction. This guarantees the separation of concerns. Each lower level Petri net contains eaxactlu one entry place and one exit place, thus analysis of the hierarchic net is simplified. Moreover fusion places are present in the lowest level Petri nets. The required model emerges from the meta-model by appropriate parametrisation of the layers of the RSHPN. Introduction of parametrisation enables the robot designer to focus only on the concepts derived from the domain. Moreover, decomposition into layers and elements of layers facilitates the design of the system, keeping each element within the mental grasp of the designer. It greatly simplifies the robotic system development process as it gives the designer clear guidance on what needs to be defined and what is imposed by the design pattern. The resulting single RSHPN model is used both to verify some properties of the system, e.g.\ lack of deadlocks, but also to automatically generate controller code. The presented approach has been utilised in the creation of different robotic systems.

Conductive polymers based sensors
Vytautas Bučinskas
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University
Abstract: Development of new synthetic materials opens wide prospective for new sensor appearance. Conductive polymers gives a new bunch of possibilities for non-metallic and non-magnetic electric conductor film in the sensing area or just connecting terminals. Another important issue, appearing with conducting polymers is force sensitive resistors, typically used as force, pressure or stress sensor. This presentation provides and overview of implementing of synthetic materials to various sensors provided new comers in the class of synthetic materials. Presentation contains analysis of existing sensor design, experimental implementation cases as well as challenges.

Deep Reinforcement Learning in Virtual Environments for Automatization of Surgical Robots
Sabina Kaminska, Michał Naskręt, Przemysław Korzeniowski
Sano Centre for Computational Medicine,,
Abstract: Automation of robotic interventions has the potential to allow surgeons to focus more on high level decision making and less on manual control of surgical tools. Techniques of Machine Learning such as Deep Reinforcement Learning have recently shown promising results in learning automation of basic yet ubiquitous surgical subtasks such as tissue retraction. Due to computational performance limitations these results were mainly obtained in simplistic non-anatomical simulated (aka virtual) surgical environments. Here we present a surgical simulation framework in which both simulation and reinforcement learning run efficiently on a single GPU. Hence, avoiding typical performance bottlenecks caused by memory copies between CPU (simulation) and GPU (learning). We created an anatomical GPU simulation of cholecystectomy procedure with liver, gallbladder, cystic duct, cystic artery and surrounding them fatty tissue as well as necessary interactions for grasping, retracting, tearing and coagulating virtual tissues. This lays a necessary foundation for our next step, which is training a policy responsible for robust tissue retraction. We believe that realistic and computationally efficient simulated environments, such as the one presented in this work, will be indispensable in automatization of surgical robots.

Extremal Problems for Infinite Order Parabolic Systems with Boundary Conditions Involving Integral Time Lags
1Adam Kowalewski, 2Marek Miśkowicz
1AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Automatics and Robotics, 2AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Measurement and Electronics,
Abstract: Extremal problems for integral time lag infinite order parabolic systems are presented. An optimal boundary control problem for distributed infinite order parabolic systems in which integral time lags appear in the Neumann boundary conditions is solved. Such equations constitute in a linear approximation a universal mathematical model for many diffusion processes. The time horizon is fixed. Making use of the Dubovicki-Milutin scheme, necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality for the Neumann problem with the quadratic performance functionals and constrained control are derived.

Numerical Estimation of the Internal Positivity of the Fractional Order Model of a Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer Process
Krzysztof Oprzędkiewicz
Abstract: In the paper the numerical estimation of the internal positivity of the model of a two dimensional heat transfer process is addressed. The considered thermal process is described by the fractional order state equation, derived from parabolic heat equation with homogenous Neumann boundary conditions and distributed control and observation. Two numerical algorithms of the postivity testing are proposed and compared. The rst one consists in the full examination of the whole area. The next one uses Monte Carlo method. From tests it can be concluded that the considered model can be internally positive only for its lower orders and heating and measurements located closely to the corner of the plate. The use of the Monte Carlo method allows to signicantly shorten the duration of computations. The presented results can be useful in measurements using a thermal camera.

Output zeroing of the descriptor continuous-time linear systems
Tadeusz Kaczorek, Kamil Borawski
Bialystok University of Technology,
Abstract: In the article the output zeroing problem of the descriptor continuous-time linear systems is studied. Necessary and sufficient conditions are given under which the transfer matrix of the considered class of dynamical systems is zero. It is shown that the output zeroing problem is connected to the controllability and observability of the descriptor systems. The considerations are based on the Weierstrass-Kronecker decomposition method.

FOPID and PID – comparison of control quality and execution time on the example of Two Rotor Aerodynamical System
Jakub Żegleń-Włodarczyk
AGH University of Science and Technology
Abstract: The article presents two types of control for the Two Rotor Aerodynamical System (TRAS). The first one contains four PID controllers, the second two FOPID controllers and two PID controllers. Their coefficients were optimized by the Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) algorithm. The implementation of such control sets made it possible to compare the control quality and execution time of both versions of controllers. The simulations were performed in the Matlab / Simulink environment.

Mechatronic design and experimental investigations of an automated human body scanner
1Maciej Trojnacki, 2Przemysław Dąbek, 1Piotr Jaroszek
1EDUROCO sp. z o.o., 2ŁUKASIEWICZ Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP,,
Abstract: The article concerns the design process and experimental investigations of the HUBO automated human body scanning system. The current state of the art in the field of systems and techniques for scanning the human figure is described. The functional and technical assumptions for the HUBO scanning system were formulated. The mechanical design of the scanner, the hardware and information system architectures as well as the user’s mobile application were presented. The method of operation of the scanning system and its innovative features are discussed. The methodology of the experimental research of the scanning system with the use of the photogrammetry technique is described. The results of laboratory studies with the use of dummies and experimental research with human participation are presented. Conclusions resulting from the conducted research were summarized and potential directions for further work were indicated.

Uniform design of heading and track controllers for ship autopilot
Andrzej Stec, Zbigniew Świder, Leszek Trybus
Rzeszów University of Technology,,
Abstract: Uniform approach to selection of PID settings for heading and path tracking controllers that create a cascade control system for ship autopilot is presented. Uniformity of the design follows from observation that for each of the controllers the controlled plant looks like an integrator with time constant. In case of the heading controller, the plant is represented by the known Nomoto model. Due to elimination of the plant time constant by the controller, each of the closed loop systems becomes of 2nd order. One assumes that such system should have a double time constant, different in a prescribed ratio from time constant of the controlled plant. It is shown that the heading controller designed in this way suppresses disturbances better than the controller with standard settings.

A prototype of a cascade ship autopilot implemented in the CPDev environment
Zbigniew Świder
Technical University of Rzeszów
Abstract: Ship autopilots can be divided into conventional, only capable of maintaining a given heading, and advanced, which can additionally follow a “track” connecting the given navigation points along the ship’s route. The article presents the structure of the prototype autopilot of the ship implemented in the CPDev environment and the formulas allowing to determine the settings of the course controller (PID) and track controller (PI) in the cascade control. For each of them, individual design parameters were adopted to define the dynamics of the closed control loop. These rules were applied in the software of the autopilot prototype, created in cooperation with a Dutch company designing control and visualization systems for ships.

Making use of mathematical models for preparation and verification of automatically controlled, manoeuvres carried out to avoid moving obstacles
Jerzy Graffstein
Institute of Aviation
Abstract: A relevant identification of significant factors affecting the process of anti collision manoeuvre computation in case of moving obstacles, is necessary for getting results reliable enough and describing a proposed trajectory of such a manoeuvre as well as its realisation. The requirement for the appropriate separation, the airplane to obstacle distance, is treated as the relevant index for verification of the course of passing by manoeuvre. Subject matter of this work is the appropriate selection of mathematical models for the subsequent phases of preparation of flight trajectory passing by the obstacles. The impact of selected simplifications of mathematical model on the shape of flight trajectory and the distance between the airplane and obstacles have been studied. Considerations have been illustrated by the results of selected computer simulations of an airplane while carrying out an obstacle avoiding manoeuvre.

Autonomous mobile flock traffic simulation in digital twin mode
Mantas Makulavičius, Rokas Bagdonas, Karolina Lapkauskaitė, Justinas Gargasas, Andrius Dzedzickis
Vilnius Gediminas Technical University,,,,
Abstract: Traffic congestion in urban areas is the main reason for the long traveling time from one place to another. This happens due to the decisions and reaction times of each driver. Reducing the influence of the driver solution on the control of the vehicle, i.e., increasing the autonomy of the vehicle, can minimize waiting times at traffic light-controlled and uncontrolled intersections. By minimizing the waiting time at the crossroad, the overall traffic intensity can be reduced as well. This research focuses on obtaining information from simulations at specific crossroads for further observations and traffic optimizations, e.g., by implementing machine learning methods. In order to represent the impact of different levels of autonomous vehicles on the autonomous mobile flock traffic, the open-source SUMO (Simulation of Urban MObility) software is used to simulate the traffic in a digital twin mode. The obtained simulation results provide information about the average speed of surrounding vehicles and the number of vehicles over a period of time, with different scenarios reflecting the density ratio of various levels of vehicle autonomy.

Evaluation of motion characteristics using absolute sensors
Vygantas Usinskis, Justinas Gargasaas, Vytautas Bučinskas
Vilnius Gediminas Technical Univercity,,
Abstract: There are many known problems for a closed space robot communication and investigation control. In many cases, communication of the robot in re-mote position under soil tunnel is hardly possible, therefore autonomous robot must operate in the prescribed environment autonomously. For the small equipment implementing LIDARs and multifunction sensors array is costly and requires an active space for the robot. In this research, there is an at-tempt to create a small channel robot control system. Paper contains theoretical research of obstacle bypassing or decision to turn back for the robot trajectory generation. As a result, camera views and reasoning examples of obstacle avoidance are presented. At the end real channel view shows visual information of trajectory track laying. Finally, conclusions on research situations are presented.

SMART Scanning Electrochemical Microscope
1Andrius Dzedzickis, 2Antanas Zinovičius, 2Agnė Bugoševičė, 2Beatričė Kulikauskaitė, 1Vytautas Bučinskas, 3Inga Morkvėnaitė-Vilkončienė
1Vilnius Gediminas Technical university, 2State research institute Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, 3Vilnius Gediminas Technical University,,,,,
Abstract: SMART Scanning Electrochemical Microscope (SMART-SECM) is the automated system for the electrochemical evaluation of micro-objects, such as living cells, bacteria, and differently deposited enzymes. SMART-SECM is based on electrochemistry at microelectrodes, positioned close to the object of interest. Using visual recognition and machine learning the object can be recognized and evaluated optically and electrochemically at the same time. Machine learning helps to detect the coordinates of the object and decide the suitability of the object to be measured. SMART-SECM provides information about the electric properties and chemical reactivity of non-biological objects, and the viability and electrochemical activity of biological objects. Automated positioning and scanning of the micro-object should ensure that the quality requirements for the measured data will be fulfilled.

Principal Components Method in Control Charts Analysis
1Yevhen Volodarsky, 2Oleh Kozyr, 3Zygmunt Warsza
1National Technical University of Ukraine in Kiev «KPI», Department of Automation of Experimental Studies, 2National Technical University of Ukraine in Kiev «KPI», 3Lukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute of Automation and Measurement (PIAP-L),,
Abstract: Shewhart control charts are successfully used to control a multi-parameter technological process, provided there is no correlation between controlled parameters. In this case, the space of dispersion of allowable values of the resulting vector x ¯ components is a hyper-parallelepiped with pairs of opposite sides corresponding to the upper and lower allowable deviations of measured process parameters. If there is a correlation between these parameters, the real area of acceptable scattering is a hyper-ellipsoid, axes of which are inclined with respect to the axes of the hyper-parallelepiped. In this case, the use of Shewhart charts leads to methodological erroneous decisions. Another control tool in the presence of correlation is the Hotelling chart, which can be successfully used to assess the quality of a multidimensional process. However, it should be noted that the Hotelling criterion itself allows assessing the state of the process as a whole, without highlighting the cause of its disorder. The Hotelling chart does not show which indicator directly (or the combined influence of indicators) is associated with a process violation. It is possible to radically solve the problem of controlling a multidimensional process by the use of principal components method. This method is based on applying a linear transformation of the resulting vector, which makes it possible to proceed to an independent analysis for each component without distorting the original relation of correlated data. In addition, the principal component method projects a multidimensional resulting vector into the space of components of a lower dimension. Most often, as practice has shown, the variation of the resulting vector can be explained by only two or three components. This allows to build control charts. The article describes in detail the method of constructing control charts based on principal components. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the application of the method is carried out on simulated data, which are close to the measurement results obtained during the control of a real technological process. The results show that the proposed method is effective for controlling a multi-parameter technological process in the presence of a correlated parameters.

Polynomial Maximization Method for Estimation Parameters of Asymmetric Non-Gaussian Moving Average Models
1Serhii Zabolotni, 2Oleksandr Tkachenko, 3Zygmunt Warsza
1Cherkasy State Business College, 2Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 3Lukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute of Automation and Measurement (PIAP-L),,
Abstract: This paper considers the application of the Polynomial Maximization Method to find estimates of the parameters non-Gaussian Moving Average model. This approach is adaptive and is based on the analysis of higher-order statistics. Case of asymmetry of the distribution of Moving Average processes is considered. It is shown that the asymptotic variance of estimates of the Polynomial Maximization Method (2nd order) analytical expressions that allow finding estimates and analyzing their uncertainty are obtained. This approach can be significantly less than the variance of the classic estimates based on minimize Conditional Sum of Squares or Maximum Likelihood (in Gaussian case). The increase in accuracy depends on the values of the coefficient’s asymmetry and kurtosis of residuals. The results of statistical modeling by the Monte Carlo Method confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

The concept of use of process data and enterprise architecture to optimize the production process
Zbigniew Juzoń, Paweł Sitek, Jarosław Wikarek
Kielce University of Technology,,
Abstract: The article presents the concept of applying the method of process data acquisi-tion and corporate architecture to optimize the production process. The developed concept allows for the identification and location of elements of the production process, the improvement/optimization of which makes the whole process better. In the proposed concept, an optimization model is developed for a localized part of the production process in the form of a mathematical programming model. The article presents also an illustrative example for which the proposed concept was applied.

Neural network model for predicting technological losses of a sugar factory
1Nataliia Zaiets, 2Lidiia Vlasenko, 3Nataliia Lutska
1National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, 2Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics, 3National University of Food Technologies,,
Abstract: To ensure the implementation of the concepts of Industry 4.0 and Lean 4.0 in order to improve the efficiency of the functioning of a manufacturing enterprise, it is necessary not only to keep records of technological losses, but also to predict them. Loss of sugar in molasses is a defining characteristic of the resource efficiency of a sugar refinery that processes sugar beets. The article proposes a neural network model of sugar loss in molasses and sugar yield with an error of less than 3%. The input variables of the forecast model are automatically measured technological variables of the main beet processing processes. The proposed model can be used for real-time forecasting. This makes it possible to identify the stages of production where the loss of sugar in molasses is the greatest, as well as to simulate various situations by changing the input data. That is, the developed model is an integral part of the management decision support system, and its use increases the yield of sugar by reducing losses.

Architecture of low energy universal programmable controller
1Marcin Hubacz, 1Bartosz Pawłowicz, 2Bartosz Trybus
1Rzeszow University of Technology, 2Rzeszów University of Technology,,
Abstract: The article presents the concept of building a low-energy programmable controller architecture developed in accordance with the IEC 61131-3 standard. The universality concerns the freedom of choice of the central unit and the possibility of easy replace-ment of the control algorithm. One of the three methods of soft-ware development and distribution is selected for the proposed solution. As part of the work, a prototype controller was prepared based on evaluation elements, intended to work in a distributed environment. The article also presents a comparison of the energy efficiency of selected STM32 systems from several different series.

Model of a washing device using textronic RFID transponders
1Marcin Hubacz, 2Bartosz Trybus, 1Bartosz Pawłowicz, 1Mateusz Salach, 3Sebastian Kołcz
1Rzeszow University of Technology, 2Rzeszów University of Technology, 3Agendo Sp. z o.o.,,,,
Abstract: Textronic RFID transponders extend the possibilities of home appliance design. New application can be found in the laundry technology, where by means of RFID transponders sewn into the garment it is possible to encode information and use it later to select the best washing program for a given type of fabric or to keep statistics of material usage. As part of this work, a demonstration model of a washing device using RFIDtex transponders (identifiers) was designed and built. A control system was prepared for the constructed model of a washing machine equipped with a RWD (Read-Write Device) device, supporting decision-making about the selection of a given function on the basis of data provided by RFIDtex identifiers integrated with the clothing. The effectiveness of the device was also checked using prepared samples.

Diagnosis of communication between the elements of a distributed control system
Marcin Bednarek
Rzeszow University of Technology
Abstract: Distributed control systems contain several elements. These include process stations (PS), which are industrial controllers; engineering stations (ES), which are computers enabling configuration and running, as well as preventive and therapeutic diagnosis of the system; and operator stations (OS), which act as visualization, alarm and operator interaction systems. System elements cyclically exchange process variable values. DCS stations can be interconnected via open, standard communication protocols. They can be easily expanded with successive elements without any issues. This case also tells us how the variable values are transferred. The location of significant data in the message data field is also known. There are also systems that use closed, proprietary communication protocols for communication between the stations. The system discussed in the article belongs to this latter group. Process and operator stations are connected via a dedicated, publicly undocumented, Ethernet-based communication protocol. The article describes selected fragments of the process diagnosing communication between a process and operator station, and between process stations of a distributed mini-system based on an AC800F modular industrial controller. Conducted experiments provided information on the transmission method and location of process variable values in transferred messages. The information can be used to make a decision regarding additional transfer protections or communicating system stations with expanding user resources.

Acceleration of Modbus Data Exchange between PLC and HMI Using the CPDev Engineering Environment
Dariusz Rzońca
Rzeszow University of Technology
Abstract: The paper presents the possibilities of improving the time parameters of communication between the industrial PLC and the HMI operator panel. As shown, sometimes the appropriate configuration of communication tasks, reducing the number of commands sent in the Modbus protocol at the expense of the necessity to transmit additional data, may lead to the minimization of the total communication cycle time. The presented solution has been implemented in the CPDev engineering environment.

Network aspects of remote 3D printing in the context of Industry as a Service IDaaS
1Mateusz Salach, 1Andrzej Paszkiewicz, 1Marek Bolanowski, 2Andrzej Kraska, 2Jakub Więcek
1Rzeszow University of Technology, 2Enformatel Sp. z o.o.,,,,
Abstract: The idea of Industry as a Service (IDaaS) is the concept of sharing devices among companies, as well as for individual users. In IDaaS model user has ac-cess to industries endpoint devices (manufacturing equipment) with specialized software and dedicated tools. Examples of devices that can be leased/shared in this way are e.g. 3D printers, CNC machines, bending machines etc. In this paper a model of architecture of web application is presented for scheduling and re-serving access to endpoint devices, in particular, the focus was on 3D printers. Studies have been conducted on analyzing the stability of system operation under connection and packet loss for various network load scenarios. The results have been analyzed and presented.

Localization of agricultural robots: challenges, solutions, and a new approach
Piotr Skrzypczynski, Krzysztof Ćwian
Poznan University of Technology,
Abstract: An important factor in precision agriculture is the accurate localization of the field machinery, which is necessary to apply the agrotechnical treatment precisely to the target location. As robots start to replace manned machines, appropriate localization techniques have to be deployed to allow these robots to localize accurately on large areas that often contain very few salient features. This paper provides a brief survey of the approaches to localization in agricultural robotics illustrated by example solutions from the literature. Then, a new approach to robot localization on large areas with sparse features is presented, leveraging the ubiquitous GNSS solution in its low-cost form combined with classic SLAM methods. We present preliminary results obtained on an electric work cart that demonstrate improved localization accuracy

Control of an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle using reinforcement learning
Pawel Miera, Hubert Szolc, Tomasz Kryjak
AGH University of Science and Technology,,
Abstract: Reinforcement learning is of increasing importance in the field of robot control and simulation plays a~key role in this process. In the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, also drones), there is also an increase in the number of published scientific papers dealing with this issue. In this work, an autonomous drone control system was prepared to fly forward and pass the trees encountered in the forest based on the data from the rotating LiDAR sensor. The Proximal Policy Optimisation (PPO) algorithm, an example of reinforcement learning (RL), was used to prepare it. A~custom simulator in the Python language was developed for this purpose. The Gazebo environment, integrated with the Robot Operating System (ROS), was also used to test the resulting control algorithm. Finally, the prepared solution was implemented in the Nvidia Jetson Nano eGPU and reality tests were carried out. During these, the drone successfully completed the set task and was able to repeatably avoid trees and fly through the forest

Self-localization of the unmanned aerial vehicle taking into account the variable orientation of the camera
1Tomasz Pogorzelski, 2Teresa Zielinska
1Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute of Aviation, 2Warsaw Univ. of Technology,
Abstract: This publication proposes a visual localization method using images from a simulated camera and a georeferenced map. The UAV model and flight simulation were made in the Matlab Simulink package, which sent UAV orientation data to the described program. The visualization of the camera image was performed in real time using the FlightGear software, the image of which was also captured by the NW program. This method is performed by two processes in two modules: Global Positioning Component and Motion Positioning Component. The first one compares the image from the simulated camera with the orthophotomap. The second determines the position based on the assessment of the displacement of characteristic points in the image in relation to the last known location. The result of the operation of both modules is illustrated in the graphic window of the NW application, which allows for a visual comparison of the obtained results. With the global method of location, additional camera orientation correction is required to determine the position in 2D space. For this purpose, data on the current camera orientation expressed in quaternions were used. This allowed for the introduction of a position correction, which significantly improved the accuracy of the result obtained in the GPC module despite significant UAV tilts during the simulated flight.

Proactive-reactive approach to disruption-driven UAV routing problem
Grzegorz Radzki, Grzegorz Bocewicz, Zbigniew Banaszak
Koszalin University of Technology,,
Abstract: The dynamics of the environment in which UAV missions are carried out forces the need to predict situations threatening their planned implementation. A study of the literature on the subject shows a gap related to the work dedicated to model-ling and planning the mission of the UAV fleet, taking into account the impact of the environment on its course. The dynamics of environmental changes caused by variable weather conditions (change in wind direction and its intensity, the tem-perature and humidity, turbulence occurrence etc.), as well as order changes, em-phasizes the growing importance of proactive planning methods, and in particu-lar, due to the ad hoc occurrence of unforeseen sudden events, including the pos-sibility of moving obstacles (e.g., bird migrations), and also reactive planning. In order to fill this gap, a new extension of the well-known VRP class, with a new so-called DMVRP, has been proposed. On the basis of a model that takes into account the impact of some of the previously mentioned disruptions, a method of proactive-reactive planning of UAVs missions was developed. Computer exper-iments indicate the possibilities of its use online for situations occurring in prac-tice, including those caused by ecological disasters.

SpacePatrol – development of prospecting technologies for ESA-ESRIC challenge
Grzegorz Gawdzik, Filip Jędrzejczyk, Michał Bryła, Marcin Słomiany, Miron Kołodziejczyk, Jakub Główka, Matuesz Maciaś
Sieć Badawcza Łukasiewicz – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP,,,,,,
Abstract: This article describes a SpacePatrol project which goal was to prepare a robotic solution for the ESA-ESRIC Space Resources Challenge – Development of Prospecting Technologies – the first competition of this type. The aim of the challenge was to present a system that would allow to search and identify natural resources in a moon analogue terrain with conditions similar to real ones. The article presents our approach to each phase of the challenge with description of introduced solutions. The idea is to present the SpacePatrol system in its final stage with detailed information about concept of operation, used sensors and technologies, followed by lessons learned and future plans.

Parametric identification of the mathematical model of a mobile robot with mecanum wheels
Zenon Hendzel, Maciej Kołodziej
Rzeszow University of Technology,
Abstract: In this work, on the basis of the parametric identification process, a new mathematical model of an industrial robot with mecanum wheels was developed. Based on the prediction error, a synthesis of the parameters identification of the mathematical model of the robot was performed. The gradient method was used to determine the values of the mathematical model parameters. The aim of the parametric identification process was to formulate a mathematical model for the synthesis of control algorithms. We use a continuous-time formulation and the parametric identification task is understood as the selection of the best mathematical model in a given class of models. Numerous experimental studies have been carried out on typical motion trajectories used in mobile robotics. Experimental and validation studies in numerous experiments have shown obtaining correct values of the identified parameters of the mathematical model of the robot.

Simulation of simple movements of Arm-Z oblique swivel joint chain manipulator
Ela Zawidzka, Machi Zawidzki
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences,
Abstract: Arm-Z – is a concept of a hyper-redundant manipulator based on linearly joined sequence of congruent modules by oblique swivel joint mechanism. Each module has one degree of freedom (1-DOF) only, namely a twist relative to the previous module in the sequence. Although the concept of this type of manipulator is relatively old and simple, its control is very difficult an nonintuitive, which results in a limited use in industrial practice. This paper presents a simple simulation of Arm-Z in Mathematica programming environment which demonstrates a few simple but potentially useful movements.

Prototyp ekstremalnie modularnego hiperredundantnego manipulatora Arm-Z
1Ela Zawidzka, 1Machi Zawidzki, 2Wojciech Kiński
1Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, 2Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP,,
Abstract: Arm-Z to koncepcja hiperredundantnego manipulatora robotycznego składającego się z przystających modułów posiadających jeden stopień swobody (1-DOF) i realizującego (prawie) dowolne ruchy w przestrzeni \cite{zawidzki2014armz}. Dwie zasadnicze zalety Arm-Z to: ekonomizacja (dzięki masowej produkcji identycznych elementów) oraz odporność na awarie (po pierwsze – zepsute moduły mogą być łatwo zastąpione, po drugie – nawet gdy jeden lub więcej modułów ulegnie awarii – manipulator taki może ciągle wykonywać, prawdopodobnie w stopniu ograniczonym, zakładane zadania). Natomiast podstawową wadą systemu Arm-Z jest jego nieintuicyjne, bardzo trudne sterowanie. Innymi słowy, połączenie koncepcji nietrywialnego modułu z formowaniem praktycznych konstrukcji oraz sterowanie ich rekonfiguracją (transformacją ze stanu A do B) są bardzo trudne obliczeniowo. Mimo to, prezentowane tutaj podejście jest racjonalne, zważywszy powszechną dostępność do wielkich mocy obliczeniowych w kontraście z wysokimi kosztami i „delikatnością” niestandardowych rozwiązań i urządzeń. W tym artykule nakreślono ogólną koncepcję manipulatora Arm-Z i zaprezentowano wstępne prace w celu wykonania prototypu.

The concept of a gripper with pose estimation for automotive components
1Adam Rydzewski, 2Piotr Falkowski
1Warsaw University of Technology, 2ŁUKASIEWICZ Research Network – Industrial Research Institute of Automation and Measure-ments PIAP,
Abstract: Robotic grasping is a critical and challenging process for manufacturing. The variety of grippers allows adjusting the setup to many applications but does not enable its universality, which is particularly important for the automotive industry. While manipulating a wide range of elements with different sizes, it is crucial to develop the methodology for detecting their pose and gripping. This paper presents a concept of using a pin array gripper to universally grasp the object of an approximately known position and then estimate its accurate pose. The estimation is based on the signals from extendable pins related to their positions. Within the experimental trials gripping of three models available online and one 3D-scanned object were simulated. Based on their pose, the expected pins’ positions were calculated. The results exposed the potential of improving the gripping process model by adding resultant force impact on the object orientation. The presented outcomes prove that the approach can be used for pose estimation. The simulation approach is helpful in generating the databases for learning algorithms without using expensive real-life setups and a wide range of physical objects.

Analysis of the possibility the implementation hybrid energy sources for mobile applications
1Mikołaj Zarzycki, 2Magdalena Dudek, 2Andrzej Raźniak
1Sieć Badawcza Łukasiewicz – Przemysłowy Instytut Automatyki i Pomiarów PIAP, 2AGH University of Science and Technology,,
Abstract: Fuel cells are of great interest in mobile robotics as they are components of propulsion units that drive electric motors for unmanned ground vehicles, including mobile robots that perform various specialised missions. The main advantage of using hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells in the hybrid power source design is the higher energy density compared to electrochemical batteries, which results in a longer operating time for such devices. However, the most common solution is the construction of hybrid energy sources (fuel cells with electrochemical batteries). Hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert the chemical energy of fuels directly into electricity. The electrical efficiency achieves 50%–60%. As the only gaseous product that is produced during the operation of a hydrogen–oxygen fuel cell is water vapour, no harmful greenhouse gases are released into the atmosphere. The absence of moving parts results in a quiet operation, and no significant amount of waste heat is released during use. The aim of the work is to investigate the possibilities of implementation hybrid energy sources (electrochemical batteries and hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells) to build electric propulsion units for unmanned vehicles. The mobile platform is manufactured by Łukasiewicz – PIAP, i.e. PIAP PATROL, and will be used for the analysis. The recommended research platform, which weighs approximately 100 kg, belongs to the category of medium-sized tracked UGVs that are used for the detection and neutralisation of pyrotechnics, including UXO, EFP IED, and designed to work in a CBRN threat environment. The application requirements for new power sources are a compromise between operational requirements and the target weight of the device. Particular attention has been paid in the work to the development of diagnostic methods for the reliability of PEMFC fuel cells. The paper presents the results of electrical tests of PEMFC fuel cells with an output of 1kW – 5kW electrical power, using hydrogen as fuel and operating under different electrical loads. Based on this, the energy indicators of the energy sources and their operating times were determined according to the amount of hydrogen that was stored in the low-pressure and high-pressure cylinders. The next step involved analysing the operational reliability of PEMFC fuel cell generators, the causes of their changes in electrical parameters due to long-term use over time under a variable electrical load and the influence of difficult weather conditions during different seasons. Based on the results of the conducted research, a methodology to develop reliability procedures for a fuel cell power source and preliminary algorithms for its implementation were proposed, which will enable the assessment of its condition before the launch of and during the mission.

Simulation of ultrasonic vibration propagation through resonators for acoustic coagulation intensification
1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Vladyslav Shybetskyi, 2Myroslava Kalinina, 3Katarzyna Rzeplinska-Rykala
1Warsaw University of Technology, 2National Technical University of Ukraine, Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, 3Łukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP,,,
Abstract: A comprehensive computer model of ultrasonic vibrations through resona-tors in the air was constructed in the universal software system of analysis by finite elements method ANSYS. Analysis system “Modal” has been applied for identifying the natural frequency of the system in the frequency range of 20 000 – 25 000 Hz. The impact of the ultrasonic emitter on the deformation of the resonators was determined by using “Harmonic Response” system. Obtained acoustic pressure levels in the air created by the oscillation of resonators under the action of ultrasound. This study can be used in the design of air purification systems based on acoustic coagulation.

Mathematical Model of the Approximate Function as the Result of Identification of the Object of Automatic Control
1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Viktorij Mel’Nick, 2Vera Kosova, 2Zhanna Ostapenko, 2Nonna Gnateiko, 3Katarzyna Rzeplinska-Rykala
1Warsaw University of Technology, 2National Technical University of Ukraine “Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute”, 3Łukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP,,,,,
Abstract: The authors have developed and improved a mathematical model that de-scribes the impact of errors in determining the structure of the approximating function on the results of the identification of automatic control objects. The influence of high-frequency “noise” on signal characteristics and identifica-tion quality has been studied. The methods of determining the parameters of the selected approximating structure based on the system’s response to a known input signal have been analyzed. Attention is paid to objects that, at first approximation, can be reduced to elementary dynamic links. Algorithms and their software implementation have been given to determine the parame-ters of approximating structures based on the transient and frequency charac-teristics of the object. An unconventional method of determining the transfer function using the least squares method has been proposed.

Regression analysis on the values of the specific activity of 137Cs in radioactive soil contamination
1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Viktoriia Melnyk-Shamrai, 2Volodymyr Shamrai, 2Valentyn Korobiichuk
1Łukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP, 2Zhytomyr Polytechnic State University,,,
Abstract: The publication analyzes the content of 137Cs in the above-ground phytomass of representatives of the lingonberry family growing in wet subors in a radioactively contaminated area. It was established that the highest average values of the specific activity of 137Cs were characteristic of Vaccinium myrtillus L., and the lowest values were characteristic of Vaccinium uliginosum L. A regression analysis was performed between the values of the specific activity of 137Cs in representatives of the lingonberry family and the values of the density of radioactive soil contamination. The results indicate the existence of a close, directly proportional linear relationship between these indicators for all studied species – the values of the correlation coefficients (r) were 0.72–0.86, and the significance coefficients p = 0.00001, which indicates the high reliability of the connection at the 95% confidence level. The values of 137Сs concentration in the studied species have a close linear relationship with the density of radioactive soil contamination.

Quasi-digital measuring system for mechanical quantities
1Igor Korobiichuk, 2Dmytro Ornatskyi, 2Mariia Kataieva, 2Dmytro Shcherbyna
1Łukasiewicz Research Network – Industrial Research Institute for Automation and Meas-urements PIAP, 2National Aviation University,,,
Abstract: The article proposes a quasi-digital measuring system for mechanical quanti-ties and gives the results of modeling measuring transducers for working with piezoresistive strain gauges and differential capacitive sensors based on quadratic voltage-to-frequency converters (VFC) whose informative parame-ter is the frequency of the output quasi-harmonic signal. A comparison with the characteristics of frequency converters based on integrating sweep con-verters is given. To reduce the random component error caused by internal and external noises, a precision wideband system of phase auto-adjustment of frequency (PAAF) was developed, the peculiarity of which is that an it-erative integrating converter is used as a smoothing element of the pulsation at the output of the two-semiperiod synchronous detector (TSD), the output voltage of the integrator is fed to the input of the controlled generator. A VFC with pulse feedback is used as a controlled generator. All this ensures a significant reduction of phase noise caused not only by synchronous, but al-so by asynchronous broadband interference, characteristic of cable communication lines (20 μV / m).

Automatic characterization and uncertainty analysis of magnetostrictive electronic filters
1Natalia Wasilewska, 2Michał Nowicki, 3Roman Szewczyk, 2Paweł Nowak
1Railway Research Institute, 2Warsaw University of Technology, Instutute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, 3Lukasiewicz Network, Indutrial Research Institute for Automation and Measurements PIAP,,,
Abstract: Experimental electronic filters made of magnetostrictive MEMS elements require characterisation of amplitude and phase response. Reliable measurements on the other hand demand thorough analysis of measurement uncertainties. It can be implemented in computer-controlled measuring system utilising principles of Type A uncertainty estimation. Moreover, the developed system enables the measurement of characteristics at different amplitudes of excitation signals, which is particularly important in magnetomechanical systems due to inherent nonlinearities of soft magnetic materials. Exemplary tests of the experimantal MEMS magnetostrictive filter are presented, validating the aplicability of the proposed measurement solution.

Analysis of sounding rocket dispersion using Monte-Carlo simulation
Dariusz Miedziński, Robert Głębocki, Mariusz Jacewicz
Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering, Division of Mechanics,,
Abstract: In this paper the Monte-Carlo method was used to investigate the sound- ing rocket dispersion. It was assumed that the rocket is equipped with a control unit composed of 32 solid propellant lateral thrusters. The 6 degree- of-freedom model was developed and implemented in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. Several factors affecting the projectile dispersion were taken into account, including uncertainties in rocket’s inertial and aerodynamic parame- ters, magnitude and direction of wind velocity as well as uncertainties in initial conditions. In addition, the influence of the malfunction of the rocket fins and the time of flight of its occurrence on the mean impact point was investigated.

Hyperspectral imaging system for food safety inspection
Berenika Linowska, Piotr Garbacz
Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute for Sustainable Technologies,
Abstract: The paper presents the analysis of the capability of developing a hyperspectral imaging system for on-line detection of foreign bodies in food products. In the first part of the article, based on literature review authors briefly introduce unique features of hyperspectral technology and its potential use in industrial inspection systems. For the purposes of material identification tests the experimental station was developed. In the final part of the article, on the basis of conducted research a concept of on-line inspection system is proposed.

Nanocomposites for improved non-enzymatic glucose biosensing
Antanas Zinovicius, Timas Merkelis, Jūratė Jolanta Petronienė, Inga Morkvėnaitė-Vilkončienė
Vilnius Gediminas Technical university,,,
Abstract: Most research in the field of biosensors during the last decade was focused on biocompatible and more sensitive solutions for glucose measurement. A comparison between state-of-the-art technologies and those that have long been established might give some clues as to which new directions to turn in order to create more efficient glucose sensors. Within the scope of this review, we cover the use of conducting polymers, conducting polymer nanowires, polymers with embedded metal nanoparticles, polymeric ionic liquid-based structures, carbon nanostructures as well as nanoparticles of other materials.

Fast object counting with an event camera
Kamil Bialik, Marcin Kowalczyk, Krzysztof Blachut, Tomasz Kryjak
AGH University of Science and Technology,,,
Abstract: This paper proposes the use of an event camera as a component of a vision system that enables counting of fast-moving objects – in this case, falling corn grains. These cameras transmit, in an asynchronous manner, information about the change in brightness of individual pixels and are characterised by low latency, no motion blur and correct operation in different lighting conditions. The proposed counting algorithm processes events in real time. The operation of the solution was demonstrated on a station consisting of a chute with a vibrating feeder, which allowed the number of falling grains to be adjusted. The objective of the control system with a PID controller was to maintain a constant average number of falling objects. The proposed solution was subjected to a series of tests to determine the correctness of the developed method operation. On their basis, the validity of using an event camera to count small, fast-moving objects and the associated wide range of potential industrial applications can be confirmed.

Scanning electrochemical microscope based on visual recognition and machine learning
1Jurga Subačiūtė-Žemaitienė, 1Andrius Dzedzickis, 1Antanas Zinovičius, 1Vadimas Ivinskij, 1Justė Rožėnė, 1Rokas Bagdonas, 1Vytautas Bučinskas, 2Inga Morkvėnaitė-Vilkončienė
1Vilnius Gediminas Technical university, 2Vilnius Gediminas Technical University,,,,,,,
Abstract: Scanning electrochemical microscopy is an advanced tool for studying elec-trochemically active surfaces, including biological ones. Experiments with biological systems must be performed fast since their reactions and states change very fast. SECM can be easily equipped with a top-mounted light mi-croscope with a known distance between the probe and the camera. This hardware solution, in combination with machine learning algorithms, would allow for the automatic finding of target locations, selecting exact positions for measurements, and compensating for positioning inaccuracies. This arti-cle demonstrates a newly constructed SECM setup. In addition, it allows faster user adaptation to unknown topography and shortened scanning times.